Taxon Name Terminology Description
Taxon Name Terminology Description
Birds Aberrant Abnormal or unusual
Birds Accidental Vagrant
Birds Adult mature, Capable of breeding
Birds Aerial Making use of the open sky
Birds Allopatric Relating to two or more related species whose range do not overlap
Birds Altitudinal migrant Moving between high mountains and lower foothills
Birds Altricial Blind and helpless when hatched
Birds Apical Outer extremities, particularly of the tail
Birds Aquatic Living on or in water
Birds Arboreal Living in trees
Birds Ashy Greyish Colour
Birds Axillaries Underwing feathers at the base of the wings, forming ‘armpits’
Birds Back Loosely applied to the mantle scapulars and rump
Birds Banyan Type of fig tree
Birds Barring ‘Sideway’ lines such as on tail or breast
Birds Basal Innermost extremities, particularly of the tail or bill
Birds Bheel Shallow lake or wetland
Birds Biosphere The part of earth that is inhabited by life
Birds Biotope Area of uniform environment, flora and fauna
Birds Bristles Sensory feathers near beak
Birds Brood Young hatched from a single clutch
Birds Brood Parasitism Depositing of eggs by one species in the nest of an another
Birds Buff Yellowish white with a hint of pale brown
Birds Bund Manmade mud embankment
Birds Canopy Leafy foliage of treetops
Birds Cap Upper part of head
Birds Carpal Bend of a closed wing, sometimes called shoulder
Birds Casque Growth above bill of hornbills
Birds Cere Patch of bare skin on upper base of bill of raptors
Birds Cheek Term loosely applied to sides of head, below the eye or on ear coverts
Birds Chevrons V shaped contrasting marks on wings or bands across breast
Birds Cinnamon Light yellowish brown colour
Birds Clutch Complete set of eggs laid by a single female
Birds Collar Distinctive band of colour that encircles or partly encircles the neck
Birds Colonial Roosting or nesting in groups
Birds Confiding Not shy
Birds Commensal Living together with man for mutual benefit
Birds Coverts Small feathers on wings and base of tail
Birds Covey Small group of partridges and allied species
Birds Crepuscular Active at dusk (twilight) and dawn
Birds Crest Extended feathers on head
Birds Crop Pouch like enlargement of gullet in some birds where food is partially digested
Birds Crown Upper part of head
Birds Crown stripe Distinct line from forehead along centre of crown
Birds Cryptic Hidden having protective colouring and/ or behaviour
Birds Culmen Ridge on upper mandible of bill
Birds Cursorial Ground running
Birds Deciduous Trees that shed their leaves annually
Birds Decurved Curving downwards
Birds Diagnostic Sufficient to identify a species or subspecies
Birds Dimorphic Having two forms of plumage
Birds Distal Terminal or the outer end
Birds Diurnal Active during daytime
Birds Down Small soft feathers close to body of chicks
Birds Drake Male duck
Birds Drumming Rhythmic territorial hammering on trees by woodpeckers
Birds Duars Forested areas south of eastern Himalayas
Birds Earcoverts Feathers covering the ear opening. Often distinctly coloured
Birds Eartufts Feathers protruding near ears
Birds Echolocate Navigate by sound
Birds Eclipse Plumage New dull plumage after breeding season, especially in ducks
Birds Endemic Indigenous and confined to a place
Birds Endangered Species facing high risk of extinction
Birds Eurasian Of both Europe and Asia
Birds Evergreen Forests that always have leaves
Birds Eyering Contrasting ring around the eye
Birds Eyestripe Stripe through eye
Birds Extinct No longer in existence
Birds Extirpated Locally extinct
Birds Extralimital Not existing in the region
Birds Facial Disc Heart shaped arrangement of feathers as in some owls and harriers
Birds Fallow Cultivated land after cultivation and before ploughing
Birds Family Specified group of genera
Birds Forage Search for food
Birds Ferruginous Rusty brown colour
Birds Feral Escaped, and living and breeding in the wild
Birds Filoplume Hair like feathers like in breeding egrets
Birds Flank Side of body
Birds Fledged Having just acquired feathers and ready to leave nest
Birds Fledglings Young birds which have just acquired feathers
Birds Flight feathers Primary and secondary wing feathers
Birds Flushed When disturbed into flight at close quarters
Birds Foreneck The lower throat
Birds Form Sub species
Birds Frons Forehead
Birds Frugivorous Fruit eating
Birds Fulvous Brownish yellow
Birds Game birds Pheasants, partridges and allied species
Birds Gape Basal part of the beak (mainly for young birds and raptors)
Birds Genera Plural of genus
Birds Genus Group of related species
Birds Ghats Hills parallel to the east and west coast of India
Birds Gorget Band across upper chest
Birds Granivorous Grain eating
Birds Gregarious Sociable Living in communities or flocks
Birds Gular pouch Loose area of skin extending from throat as in pelicans and hornbills
Birds Gular stripe Narrow and often dark stripe running down from the centre of throat
Birds Guttural From the throat
Birds Hackles Long and pointed neck feathers
Birds Hawking Capturing insects in flight
Birds Hepatic Rust or liver coloured plumage phase, mainly in female cuckoos
Birds Hood Dark coloured head and throat
Birds Hunting party Group of birds usually of different species, seeking food
Birds Hybridization Cross breeding between two different species
Birds Immature Plumage phases prior to adult
Birds Incubate Giving warmth for eggs to hatch
Birds Iris Coloured eye membrane surrounding pupil
Birds Irruption Mass movement of a population from one place to another
Birds Jheel Shallow lake or wetland
Birds Jizz Essence or striking characteristics of a species
Birds Juvenile Immature bird immediately after leaving nest
Birds Lamellae Small stiff comb like membrane on inner edge of bill used for sieving food
Birds Lanceolate Lance shaped. Slim and pointed
Birds Lantana Invasive aggressive shrub introduced to the region
Birds Leading edge Front edge of wing
Birds Lek Sociable courtship gatherings
Birds Lobe Fleshy extensions to side edges of toes of some birds
Birds Local Unevenly distributed with a region
Birds Loranthus Parasitical bush that grows on tress and frequented by flowerpeckers
Birds Lores Area between eye and bill base
Birds Lump Treatment of one or more forms previously treated as distinct species as race of a single species
Birds Malar Stripe on side of throat
Birds Mandible Each of the two parts of bill
Birds Mangrove Coastal salt resistant trees or bushes
Birds Mantle Back, between wings
Birds Mask Dark plumage round eye and ear covert
Birds Mesial Stripe Central throat stripe
Birds Migration Seasonal movement between distant places
Birds Mirror White spots in wing tips, mainly of gulls
Birds Monotypic Of a single form with no subspecies
Birds Montane Pertaining to mountains
Birds Monsoon Rainy season in India
Birds Morph One of several distinct types of plumage in the same species
Birds Moult Seasonal shedding of plumage
Birds Nail Hook on tip of upper mandible
Birds Nape Back of neck
Birds Nares Nostril openings
Birds Necklace Narrow line round neck
Birds Nictitating Membrane Transparent fold of skin forming a third eyelid
Birds Nidicolous Chicks that remain in nests for a long duration after hatching
Birds Nidifugous Chicks that leave the nests soon after hatching
Birds Nidification Relating to nests or nesting
Birds Nocturnal Active at night
Birds Nomadic Species without specific territory except when breeding
Birds Nominate First sub species to be formally named
Birds Non passerine All order of birds except for Passerines
Birds Notch Indentations in outline of feathers, wing or tail
Birds Nuchal Crest Crest along back of neck
Birds Nullah Dry or wet stream bed or ditch
Birds Nuptial Plumage Breeding plumage
Birds Ocelli Brightly coloured ‘eye like’ spots as on peacocks
Birds Occipital Back of head
Birds Oology Study of bird’s eggs
Birds Orbital ring Narrow ring of skin or feathers round the eye
Birds Order Group of related families
Birds Paddy fields Rice fields often flooded
Birds Paleartic Old World and arctic zone
Birds Parasitic Deriving sustenance or taking advantage of others, like cuckoos laying eggs in other bird’s nest
Birds Passerines Perching and song birds
Birds Pectoral Breast area
Birds Pelagic Ocean going
Birds Pellet Indigested material regurgitated by owls
Birds Phase Colour form of a species
Birds Pied Black and white
Birds Plumage Feathers of a bird
Birds Plumes Long, showy feathers, acquired during the breeding season
Birds Polyandrous Female having more than one mate
Birds Polygamous Male with more than one mate
Birds Polymorphic Taking several forms
Birds Postocular Area behind the eye
Birds Precocial Young hatched sighted and downcovered, e.g. ducklings
Birds Predator Who feeds on other birds or animals
Birds Primaries Outer flight feathers in wing
Birds Race Sub species
Birds Rachis Central shaft of a feather
Birds Range Geographical area or areas inhabited by a species
Birds Raptors Birds of prey and Vultures, excluding owls
Birds Record Published, or otherwise broadcast, occurrence
Birds Rectrices Tail feathers
Birds Remiges The primaries and secondaries combined
Birds Rictal Around the bill
Birds Resident Non migratory and breeding in same place
Birds Riparian Along creeks, streams, rivers and waterways
Birds Roost Resting or sleeping space
Birds Rufescent Inclining to redness
Birds Rufous Reddish brown
Birds Rump Lower back
Birds Sal Dominant tree of North Indian forests
Birds Sallies Short flights and returning to perch as in bee eaters and flycatchers
Birds Salt pans Shallow reservoirs for drying out salt
Birds Savanna Open flat land with grass and scattered bushes
Birds Sedentary Staying in the same area throughout the year
Birds Scalloped Curved markings on edges of feathers
Birds Scapulars Feathers along edge of mantle
Birds Scrape Shallow depression made by birds to serve as nest
Birds Secondaries Inner wing feathers
Birds Sedentary Confined with a particular area
Birds Shaft Central stem of a feather, often hidden
Birds Shank Bare parts of a leg
Birds Sholas Small forests in SW Indian valleys
Birds Shoulder Where the wing meets the body
Birds Shorebird Long legged bird living near water
Birds Skins Bird specimens prepared for scientific studies
Birds Skulker Bird that mostly remains within vegetation cover
Birds Slaty
Birds Soar Rising flight on still extending wings using thermals
Birds Speculum Area of colour on secondary feathers of wings
Birds Streamers Long extensions to feathers, usually of tail
Birds Spangles Distinctive white or shimmering spots in plumage
Birds Species Groups of birds reproductively isolated from other such groups
Birds Speculum Shiny, colourful patch on secondary feathers of the wing of some ducks
Birds Storey Level of the tree or forest
Birds Spur Sharp horny growth on legs of some birds
Birds Straw Pale yellow colour
Birds Streaks ‘Lenghtwise’ lines on breasts or tail
Birds Streamers Long extension of tail feathers
Birds Striated Marked with fine streaks
Birds Sooty Blackish Colour
Birds Sub adult Immature moulting into adult plumage
Birds Sub montane Hills below highest mountains
Birds Sub song Subdued version of normal territorial song
Birds Subspecies Distinct form that does not have specific status
Birds Subterminal band Broad band on outer part of feather
Birds Supercilia Plural of supercilium
Birds Supercilium Streak above eye
Birds Symbiotic Interdependence between different species
Birds Tail Streamers Elongated ribbon like tail feathers
Birds Talons Strong sharp claws used to seize or kill prey
Birds Tank Water reservoir
Birds Tarsus Lower part of a bird’s legs
Birds Taxonomy Science of classifying organisms
Birds Teak Dominant tree of South Indian forests
Birds Terai Alluvial strech of land south of the Himalayas
Birds Terminal band Broad band on tip of feather or tail
Birds Terrestrial Ground living
Birds Tertials Innermost wing coverts, often covering secondaries
Birds Totipalmate All four toes connected to a single web
Birds Trailing edge Rear edge of wing
Birds Underparts Under surface of a bird from throat to vent
Birds Underwing Undersurface of a wing including the linings and flight feathers
Birds Upperparts Upper surface of a bird including wings, back and tail
Birds Upperstorey Canopy of a tree
Birds Vagrant Accidental, irregular
Birds Vent Undertail area
Birds Ventral Undersurface of body
Birds Vermiculations Wavy (worm like) markings
Birds Vinaceous Red wine coloured warm pink
Birds Voca mimicry Imitating the sounds of other birds
Birds Waders Shorebirds. Usually, the smaller, longleggedwaterbirds
Birds Washed Suffused with a particular colour
Birds Wattle Bare skin, often coloured, on part of head
Birds Web Skin stretched between toes
Birds Wildfowl Ducks and geese
Birds Wing bar visible line of colour at tip on wingcoverts
Birds Wing coverts Small feathers on wing at base of primaries and secondaries
Birds Wing span Length from one wing tip to the other when fully extended
Birds Winter plumage Plumage seen during the nonbreeding winter months
Birds Zygodactylous Having two toes directed forward and two backwards
Bivalve Beak the first formed part of a valve, usually above the hinge.
Bivalve Bifid split in two (as in the tooth in the hinge).
Bivalve Byssus clump of horny threads spun by the foot and attached to the hard bottom.
Bivalve Cardinal tooth hinge tooth situated near the umbo.
Bivalve Concentric sculpturing running parallel to the growth margin of the valves.
Bivalve Escutcheon a smooth, long surface on the upper margin of the valve behind the horny ligament.
Bivalve Gape opening or gap at either end of the closed valves.
Bivalve Hinge top interlocking margin of the valves, usually with teeth.
Bivalve Lateral tooth hinge tooth situated before or behind the cardinal teeth and at greater distance from the umbo.
Bivalve Ligament an external or internal horny band, usually behind the beaks, holding the valves together or ajar.
Bivalve Lunule an arrow-shaped or heart-shaped impression on the valves just in front of the beaks.
Bivalve Pallial sinus an embayment or U-shaped curve in the pallial line.
Bivalve Periostracum an outer layer of thin or thick chitinous material covering the outer shell.
Bivalve Radial sculpture or colour rays running from the beaks to the lower margins of the valves, crossing the concentric sculpturing one of the main shelly halves of a bivalve.
Bivalve Siphon slits allowing the enterance of water (inhalant, ventral siphon) or its exit (exhalant, dorsal siphon).
Bivalve Valve one of the main shelly halves of a bivalve
Cepahlopod Anal flaps A pair of fleshy papillae that arise at the sides of the anus.
Cepahlopod Anterior Toward the head end or toward the arm tips of cephalopods.
Cepahlopod Arm formula Comparative length of the arms expressed numerically in decreasing order, e.g., or
Cepahlopod Armature Refers to the presence and arrangement of suckers and/or hooks on the arms and tentacular clubs of cephalopods.
Cepahlopod Beak The chitonous like structure at the mouth of a cephalopod. The beak is similar in structure to a parrot's beak and can give a nasty bite.
Cepahlopod Bifurcated arm tip The division of the arm tip into 2 branches.
Cepahlopod Biochemistry The study of the chemistry of living organisms
Cepahlopod Brachial Pertaining to the arms.
Cepahlopod Branchial Pertaining to the gills or gill region.
Cepahlopod Buccal lappet Small, subtriangular flap at tip of muscular band that supports the buccal membrane; may bear suckers.
Cepahlopod Buccal membrane Thin web of tissue that encircles the mouth, reinforced by 6 to 8 buccal supports.
Cepahlopod Buccal membrane connectives Muscular bands that connect the supports of the buccal membrane to the bases of the arms.
Cepahlopod Buccal suckers Small suckers on the buccal lappets/membrane.
Cepahlopod Calcified Chalky, calcareous by deposition of calcium salts (calcium carbonate).
Cepahlopod Calimus The conical papilla or projection on the hectocotylus of octopods at the proximal terminus of the sperm groove, distal to the last sucker
Cepahlopod Carpal cluster A usually distinct group of suckers and knobs on the carpus of the tentacular club.
Cepahlopod Carpal knobs Small, rounded, hemispherical protuberances on the carpus to which carpal suckers from the opposite club adhere during the locking of the clubs.
Cepahlopod Carpal suckers Small suckers on the carpus of the club that usually adhere to knobs on the opposite carpus during the locking of the clubs.
Cepahlopod Carpus The proximal zone of (small) suckers (and knobs) on the tentacular club.
Cepahlopod Cartilaginous scales Cartilage like structures in the skin of certain squids; may be overlapping and scale like, or mutlifaceted knobs or papillae.
Cepahlopod Cephalopod A class of Molluscs that are known for the reduction, internalization or loss of their shell (exception: Nautilus), active life styles and advanced behavior. Cephalopods are jet powered, many can produce ink and they can rapidly change color, shape and texture.
Cepahlopod Chitin(ous) A horny polysaccharide substance (fingernail like) that forms the sucker rings, hooks and beaks.
Cepahlopod Chromatophores Pigment filled muscular sacs in the skin under individual nervous control that collectively provide the background colour, colour patterns, and colour play of cephalopods.
Cepahlopod Circumoral appendages The eight arms (squids, cuttlefishes and octopuses) and two tentacles (squids and cuttlefishes) or the very numerous arms (Nautilus) that arise from the h ead and encircle the mouth of cephalopods.
Cepahlopod Cirri Arm: elongate, fleshy, finger like papillae along the lateral edges of the oral surface of the arms, especially in cirrate octopods. Body: fleshy protuberances of the skin that can be erected as papillae, usually over the eyes.
Cepahlopod Class Any of the taxonomic groups into which a phylum is divided and which consists of one or more orders.
Cepahlopod Cones, conus The spoon like or cup like conical posterior terminus of the gladius or cuttlebone; homologous to the phragmacone of fossil teuthoids.
Cepahlopod Corneal membrane The very thin, transparent skin that covers the eyes of myopsid and sepioid cephalopods.
Cepahlopod Cuttlebone The calcareous (chalky) oblong, supporting plate in the dorsal part of the mantle of cuttlefishes.
Cepahlopod Dactylus The distal, terminal section of the tentacular club, often characterized by suckers of reduced size.
Cepahlopod Distal Away from the body or point of origin; toward the peripheral parts (opposite of proximal).
Cepahlopod Dorsal The uppermost or back surface of a cephalopod, opposite the ventral surface where the funnel is located.
Cepahlopod Enzyme A protein made within a living organism which accelerates specific chemical reactions (a catalyst).
Cepahlopod Epidermis The outer layer of cells.
Cepahlopod Family Any of the taxonomic groups into which an order is divided and which consists of one or more genera.
Cepahlopod Fast Moll A list server for people interested in cephalopods. Most members are scientists and traffic is very low.
Cepahlopod Fin angle The angle between the longitudinal axis of the mantle and the posterior border of one fin.
Cepahlopod Fin lobe The portion of each fin that protrudes anteriorly from the anterior point of attachment of the fin to the mantle.
Cepahlopod Fins The pair of muscular flaps that arise along the dorsolateral surface of the mantle of sepioids, teuthoids, and cirrate octopods; used for locomotion, steering and stabilization.
Cepahlopod Fixing apparatus The mechanism of suckers and knobs on the carpal region of the tentacular club that permits the two clubs to be locked together during capture of prey
Cepahlopod Foveola Transverse, membranous fold of skin that forms a pocket in the funnel groove of some oegopsids
Cepahlopod Funnel / Siphon The ventral, subconical tube through which water is expelled from the mantle cavity during locomotion and respiration (reproductive and waste products and the ink also pass through the funnel). Archaic term siphon.
Cepahlopod Funnel groove The depression in the posteroventral surface of the head in which lies the anterior portion of the funnel.
Cepahlopod Funnel locking Cartilage The cartilaginous groove, pit, pocket, on depression on each ventrolateral side of the posterior part of the funnel that joins with the mantle component to lock the funnel and mantle together during locomotion, so water is expelled only through the funnel and not around the mantle opening (see Mantle locking cartilage).
Cepahlopod Funnel organ The glandular structure fused to the internal surface of the funnel, generally a single W shaped form in octopods and a dorsal inverted V shaped component with opposed ventral oblong components in decapods.
Cepahlopod Funnel valve The semilunar muscular flap in the dorsal surface of the distal opening of the funnel.
Cepahlopod Ganglia Knot like masses of the cell bodies of neurons located outside of the central nervous system (CNS); includes the swellings of the CNS in invertebrates.
Cepahlopod Gill lamellae The leaf like convoluted individual components of the gill through which gas exchange occurs.
Cepahlopod Gills Structures used by cephalopods and many other marine animals like fish for respiration.
Cepahlopod Gladius The feather or rod shaped chitinous supporting structure in the dorsal midline of teuthoids and non sepiid sepioids; the homolog of the shell of ancestral forms.
Cepahlopod Hectocotylus One (or more) arm(s) of male cephalopods modified for transferring spermatophores to the female; modifications may involve suckers, sucker stalks, protective membranes, trabeculae
Cepahlopod Hooks Chitinous, claw like structures ontogenetically derived from the suckers on the arms and/or clubs of some oegopsids.
Cepahlopod Ink sac The structure that manufactures and stores the ink of cephalopods; it lies along the intestine and empties via a duct into the rectum.
Cepahlopod Iridescent Shimmering and changing colours.
Cepahlopod Keel A flattened, muscular extension along the aboral surface of some arms to render them more hydrodynamic; (2) 1 or 2 expanded muscular membranes on the tentacular
Cepahlopod Light organ A simple or complex structure that produces bioluminescence by intrinsic (self generated) or extrinsic (bacterial) means (also termed photophore).
Cepahlopod Ligula The spatulate to spoon shaped, terminal structure of the hectocotylus of octopods, that contains the calimus basally (proximally) and usually a series of transverse ridges and grooves on the oral surface
Cepahlopod Mantle The fleshy (muscular) tubular or sac Iike body of cephalopods; provides propulsion through jet Iike expulsion of water; contains the viscera.
Cepahlopod Mantle locking cartilage The cartilaginous ridge, knob or swelling on each side of the ventrolateral, internal surface of mantle that locks into the funnel component of the apparatus during locomotion
Cepahlopod Manus Central or "hand" portion of club between the dactylus distally and the carpus proximally.
Cepahlopod Medial (n) Pertaining to a structure located towards, on, or along the midline.
Cepahlopod Needhams' sac The elongate, membraneous container at the terminus of the male reproductive tract that stores completed spermatophores (=spermatophore sac).
Cepahlopod Ocellus A pigmented spot or patch usually consisting of a central locus of concentrated chromatophores with one or more concentric rings of chromatophores. Ocellae occur on some octopuses, and their normally vivid pigmentation make them stand out against the background colouration.
Cepahlopod Oesophagus (Esophagus) The region of animal gut which transports food from mouth or pharynx.
Cepahlopod Olfactory papilla A bump Iike to finger like protuberance on the posterolateral surface of each side of the head; of presumed olfactory function.
Cepahlopod Orbital pore Minute pore in the anterior part of the transparent tissue that covers the eyes of sepioids and myopsids
Cepahlopod Orbital sinus An anteriorly directed indentation in the eyelid of oegopsids
Cepahlopod Pedicel Short, tubular stalk that supports a sucker in sepioids and teuthoids.
Cepahlopod Photophore An organ of greater or lesser complexity that produces and distributes bioluminescence, either intrinsically through biochemical reaction or extrinsically through luminescent bacteria
Cepahlopod Ploidy (in ref to algae) Indicating a specific multiple of a single set of Diploidy.
Cepahlopod Pocket An open depression in the anteroventral surface of the head of sepioids into which the feeding tentacles are retracted when not in use.
Cepahlopod Protective membrane Thin web like integument along the lateral angles of the oral surface of the arms and clubs lateral to the suckers, supported by muscular rods called trabeculae
Cepahlopod Proximal Toward the body or nearest or next to the point of origin or attachment; (opposite of distal).
Cepahlopod Rachis The thickened central axis that usually extends the entire length of the gladius. Free rachis is the portion that does not support vanes
Cepahlopod Radula The chitinous, ribbon like band in the mouth of cephalopods containing several transverse rows of teeth.
Cepahlopod Retinal Pertaining to the light sensitive membrane lining the posterior wall of the eyeball.
Cepahlopod Senescent Growing old.
Cepahlopod Sepion The calcareous dorsal supporting structure in the mantle of cuttlefishes.
Cepahlopod Side pockets Small membranous folds of the integument that form pockets lateral to the foveola
Cepahlopod Sperm recepticle A bulbous structure in the buccal region of some female cephalopods, e.g., loliginids, for the retention of viable sperm until they are required for fertilization. A tubular structure manufactured by male cephalopods for packaging sperm; capable of holding millions of sperm, being transferred intact, and attaching to the female until fertilization begins.
Cepahlopod Spermatophore A fleshy patch of tissue, usually in the mantle cavity of some female cephalopods (e.g. loliginids), to which spermatophores adhere after mating until fertilization occurs.
Cepahlopod Spine The sharp spike Iike extension on the posterior tip of the gladius or cuttlebone
Cepahlopod Statocyst The 'ear bone' of cephalopods. Statocysts of some species can be used to age them.
Cepahlopod Sucker ring Chitinous, often serrated or denticulate ring that encircles the opening of suckers of squids and cuttlefishes.
Cepahlopod Suckers Muscular, suction cup structures on the arms and tentacles (rarely on the buccal membrane) of cephalopods; some are stalked, placed on muscular rods that contract (squids and cuttlefishes); some are sessile, embedded without stalks on the oral surface of the arms (octopuses). They are usually counted either in longitudinal or in transverse (oblique) rows.
Cepahlopod Tail The posterior extension of the mantle, frequently elongate. Fins or tapered terminations of fins may extend posteriorly along the tail.
Cepahlopod Tentacles Elongate, stalked circumoral appendages of cuttlefishes and squids used for prey capture; distal ends contain clubs with suckers (or hooks); stalks usually devoid of suckers. Tentacles can retract into pockets on the head of cuttlefishes, or merely contract, in squids.
Cepahlopod Tentacular club Terminal portion of a tentacle; armed with suckers (or suckers and/or hooks), used for capturing prey
Cepahlopod Trabeculae Muscular rods that support the protective membranes on the arms and clubs of cephalopods; occasionally membranes are reduced and/or trabeculae are elongated, so they extend beyond the edge of the membrane, papilla like.
Cepahlopod Umbilicus The central core of the chambered Nautilus shell, representing the juvenile shell with its initial coils.
Cepahlopod Vane Thin lateral expansion of the gladius that arises from the rachis.
Cepahlopod Ventral The lowermost or belly surface of a cephalopod; the surface on which the funnel is located; opposite the dorsal surface.
Cepahlopod Viscera The 'guts' of an animal.
Cepahlopod Water pores Small orifaces at base of the web of some pelagic octopuses
Cepahlopod Web A membranous sheet of greater or lesser extent that extends between the arms of many octopuses, giving an umbrella like appearance when the arms are spread out, e.g., on cirroteuthids
Coral Abiotic environment The physical factors that affect an organism such as light, temperature, water and its dissolved and suspended materials, and nutrients.
Coral Acropora The dominant genus of the family Acroporidae. The species Acropora constitutes almost half of all the true corals and creates the major deposits of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Coral Ahermatypic Corals that lack endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) and do not contribute to reef-building.
Coral Alcyonacea The order of soft corals. They are cnidarian and live in shallow water. Most of the specimens are tropical and soft-bodied and found in all areas.
Coral Alcyonaria An order of cylindrical polyps found in all marine environments. The largest distribution is in tropical waters where many harbor symbiotic zoochlorellae or zooxanthellae algae, which can add colour to them.
Coral Ampullae Reproductive structures found in hydrozoan coral.
Coral Anterior The head or leading end of an animal. The term is also used to denote position. Thus, the head of an arthropod is anterior to its thorax.
Coral Anthozoa A class of marine coelenterates (phylum Cnidaria), such as sea anemones and corals. Anthozans are animals with radial symmetry. The dominant form is the polyp, which can be large and quite complex. Most, but not all, anthozoans are colonial.
Coral Antipatharian coral Coral that produces a hard proteinaceous skeleton; Black coral.
Coral Appressed Corallite Radial corallites of Acropora with one side fused to the branch axis.
Coral Arborescent Coral with a tree-like growth form.
Coral Archipelago A group of islands. An archipelago may consist of isolated volcanic seamounts or mountain tops whose lower slopes and valleys have been submerged.
Coral Askeletal corals and larvae Corals and larvae that do not have skeletons.
Coral Atoll A ring of land surrounding a tropical lagoon, and which is in turn surrounded by a coral reef. An atoll is frequently formed of basaltic rock of volcanic origin and is capped with limestone covered with coral. The islets that form atolls range in size from those less than a mile (1 km) in diameter to those over 78 miles (120 km) in diameter.
Coral Axial Referring to the corallite formed at the tip of a branch.
Coral Axial Corallites Distinctive corallites at the apex of Acropora branches, usually much larger than Radial corallites below.
Coral Azooxanthellae Cnidarians without symbiotic photosynthesizing algae. Species described as azooxanthellae commonly feed on passing plankton and waterborne material.
Coral Barrier reef A partially submerged coral outcrop on the seaward side of a lagoon. The barrier reef follows the contour of the land, of which it may be an extension. Water in the lagoon is shallow, permitting coral growth, but the descent is steep on the ocean side. Barrier reefs result from coral growth or a change in the level of the seawater or subsidence of the beach area.
Coral Bleaching Condition when colored zooxanthellae are expelled from a living coral due to stress, resulting in a weakened specimen with its white skeleton clearly visible through the animal's transparent tissue.
Coral Bottlebrush Acropora growth form where branches are lined with many elongate tubular corallites.
Coral Budding Process of corallite reproduction by division to create identical copies
Coral Caespitose Bushy growth form of Acropora with branches dividing with 3 axes.
Coral Calyx Portion of corallite defined by the outer wall, plural calices.
Coral Calice The upper surface of a corallite to which the soft parts of an individual polyp are attached i.e. the upper, open end of the corallite.
Coral Cerioid Massive corals that have corallites sharing common walls (e.g. the upper surface of the corallum).
Coral Cnidaria A phylum whose members have tentacles, nematocysts, and radial symmetry. They are, for the most part, marine
Coral Coenosarc An extension of the polyp that stretches over the surface of the skeleton.
Coral Coenosteum Thin horizontal skeletal plates between corallites.
Coral Coral A group of marine animals belonging to the phylum cnidaria, that exist as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically in colonies of many identical individuals; or the skeletal remains of coral polyps.
Coral Coral reef Aragonite (calcium carbonate) structure produced by corals and found in shallow, tropical marine waters.
Coral Colline Elongate wall or ridge formed between corallites or groups of corallites. Columella a skeletal structure that develops in the central axis of the calice. It is usually either styliform (rod-like), papillose, trabecular (both spongy in appearance) or lamellar (formed from a series of interconnecting vertical plates).
Coral Columella Skeletal structure at center of corallite; none, porous, peg, or rod-like.
Coral Colonial Corals composed of many individuals a group of polyps formed from a common parent by budding. There is no clear distinction (e.g. in fungiids) between single individuals with many mouths and colonies of individuals with single mouths.
Coral Colony Coral composed of multiple corallites; compare to Solitary.
Coral Coral and coral reefs Cnidarians of the class Anthozoa; they are polyps, predominantly with sixfold or eightfold symmetry, and are either solitary or colonial. The coralline coelenterates construct calcium containing shells of characteristic shapes. Colonies of coral and their associated foraminifera and symbiotic algae live best in tropical and semitropical environments.
Coral Corallite The skeleton of an individual coral polyp / the skeletal parts deposited by a single polyp.
Coral Corymbose Acropora growth form where plates or clumps are composed of interlocking horizontal branches with upturned tips.
Coral Digitate Growth form of short thick vertical branches that are finger-like.
Coral Costae Extension of the septa outside the corallite wall.
Coral Dendroid Corallum formed from spreading branches of single corallites.
Coral Dissepiments Skeletal structures left by the polyps.
Coral Edge zone A horizontal fold of the polyp wall that extends over the corallite wall.
Coral Encrusting Relatively thin growth form which closely approximates the surface beneath.
Coral Endemic Species restricted to a specific area.
Coral Extratentacular budding Process of budding that grows outward from the parent corallite's outer wall; compare to Intratentacular budding.
Coral Explanate Colony spreads out flat, plate-like or foliaceous.
Coral Exsert A term used to describe septa that protrude above the top of the corallite wall.
Coral Flabellate Colony in which the meanders arise from a common base but are free laterally. They may be relatively short (crescentic) or elongate and sinuous (flabello-meandroid).
Coral Flabello-meandroid Corals with polyp-containing valleys that are separated by additional ridges.
Coral Fossa The central depression in a calice, usually partly filled by the columella.
Coral Free-living Corals that are not attached to the substrate.
Coral Fringing reef A reef attached to an island or a continent. The seaward side may be submerged and therefore a navigational hazard.
Coral Great Barrier Reef A coral reef that lies east of Australia, stretching from the Torres Strait south of New Guinea (Irian) to the Tropic of Capricorn. It is more than 1,750 km (1,100 miles) long and the world’s largest reef.
Coral Hermatypic Corals that contain endosymboionts and contribute to the building of reefs. Literally 'reef building' but commonly used as a descriptor for marine invertebrates that have photosynthetic plants living symbiotically within their tissues. Because the word is a misnomer, several terms, including 'reef-building', 'symbiotic' and 'zooxanthellate', are used synonymously. Of these, the former two are ambiguous and the latter is restricted to extant corals and other taxa with zooxanthellae
Coral Hydrozoa A class of cnidarians that characteristically exhibits alternations of generations, often with a sessile polyp giving rise to a pelagic medusoid form by asexual budding.
Coral Immersed / Inserted A term used to describe septa which do not protrude above the top of the corallite wall.
Coral Immersed corallites Corallites with opening embedded within coenosteum.
Coral Incipient Axial corallites in some species of Acropora that are smaller than average.
Coral Intratentacular budding Process of budding that occurs within the parent corallite's outer wall; compare to Extratentacular budding.
Coral Imperforate Referring to skeletal structures in corals (e.g., walls, septa, coenosteum) that are solid rather than porous.
Coral Indicator species One or more organisms used to assess the ecological health of a biome.
Coral Keystone species A predator at the top of a food web, capable of consuming organisms of more than one tropic level beneath it and strongly affecting the community structure.
Coral Massive Thick colonies, often having a round, dome, or cube shape.
Coral Meandroid Massive corals that have corallite mouths aligned in valleys such that there are no individual polyps; i.e. in which the corallites are fused in longitudinal series to produce a pattern of valleys and ridges.
Coral Mesenteries/mesenterial filaments The mesenteriesare radial partitions lying within the gastrovascular cavity of the coral polyp; mesenterial filaments may be produced from their free inner margins; coiled tubular structures within the polyp body cavity.
Coral Monticule Conical process arising from corallite walls that include ribs, also known as Hydnophore.
Coral Nariform Triangular radial corallites of Acropora resembling an upside-down nose.
Coral Oral disc Upper surface of the polyp, extending from the mouth to the outer ring of tentacles.
Coral Pali Vertical rods (pali) or plates (paliform lobes) arising from inner end of septal plates.
Coral Papillae Warts, rods, or lumps on coenosteum which are no larger than a corallite.
Coral Parasite An organism that feeds on the tissues of another organism. Parasites are one of the major causes of disease in aquarium fishes.
Coral Petaloid septa Primary septa with a petal-like appearance surrounded by smaller septa; Family Siderastreidae.
Coral Paliform lobe A vertical lobe-like protrusion formed at the inner end of a septum, adjacent to the columella.
Coral Perforate Referring to skeletal structures in corals (e.g., walls, septa, coenosteum) that are porous rather than solid.
Coral Peristome Area within the inner ring of tentacles and immediately surrounding the mouth.
Coral Peritheca The surface of the coenosteum between the corallites.
Coral Phaceloid Corals that have corallites adjoined only towards their base; i.e. in which tall, separate corallites arise from the basal part of the corallum.
Coral Plocoid Massive corals that have corallites with separate walls (c.f. cerioid corals) i.e. in which corallites are separate and well defined.
Coral Planula Free-swimming coral larvae.
Coral Plocoid Colony with elevated corallites that do not share walls.
Coral Polyp Typically sedentary soft-bodied component of Cnidaria (corals, sea pens etc), which comprises a trunk that is fixed at the base; the mouth is placed at the opposite end of the trunk, and is surrounded by tentacles.
Coral Prostrate Branching coral that grows horizontally just above the substrate.
Coral Radial corallites Smaller corallites that occur on side of Acropora branches; compare to Axial corallites.
Coral Rasp-like corallites Long radial corallites in Acropora with curved, knife or rasp-shaped openings.
Coral Satellite colonies Colonies that develop within the tissue of parent colonies and which have their own unattached skeletons. Best seen in Goniopora stokesi.
Coral Scleractinians Corals which have a hard limestone skeleton and belong to the order Scleractinia.
Coral Scale-like corallites Short radial corallites in Acropora with curved, fish-scale like appearance.
Coral Septa Radiating skeletal plates or ribs within a corallite's walls, may be in several cycles by size.
Coral Septo-costae Radiating skeletal plates or ribs that are continuous, extending outside the corallite walls onto the coenosteum and usually shared with adjacent corallites; Family Agariciidae, Siderastreidae.
Coral Septal cycles Relating to the formation and arrangement of the septa. Septa are laid down in radial series or cycles, the first cycle consisting of six primary septa, the second of six secondary septa, the third of 12 tertiary septa, and so on, Septal margin the upper free edge of the septum
Coral Septal orders Relating to the size of septa. Equal sized septa form a single order; subequal or unequal septa form two or more orders. Orders do not necessarily correspond to cycles
Coral Septocostae Extensions of the septa that unite adjacent calice centers. They are found in corals where the corallites lack walls and there is no clear distinction between septa and costae.
Coral Septum The calcareous, plate-like structures that radiate from the wall toward the center of the corallite. They are aligned vertically and alternate with the mesenteries.
Coral Solitary Referring to corals that grow as a single polyp with a surrounding skeleton.
Coral Synapticulae Small bars that make lateral links between adjacent septa.
Coral Thamnasterioid A corallum in which corallite walls are indistinct and the septa run uninterrupted between calice centers.
Coral Trochoid Colony top shaped.
Coral Turbinate Colonys haped like an inverted cone.
Coral Vernacular name A name proposed in a language used for general purposes as opposed to a name proposed only for zoological nomenclature. In the Catalog one finds the expression, "Not available, appeared as a French vernacular.
Coral Zoanthidea Colonial polyps that resemble sea anemones. They are anthozoans of the phylum Cnidaria and are related to the corals. They inhabit sandy bottoms in tropical to temperate water, an ecological niche similar to that of the sponges.
Coral Zooxanthellae A group of symbiotic dinoflagellates living endosymbiotically in association with one of a variety of invertebrate groups (e.g., corals). In corals, they provide carbohydrates through photosynthesis, which are used as one source of energy for the coral polyps. They also provide coloration for the corals.
Crab Antenna(pl. antennae) The long segmented appendages located behind the eyestalks. These allow the crab to interact with its environment by touch and chemoreception.
Crab Antennule (pl. antennules) Shorter segmented appendages located between and below the eyestalks, sensory organs; these also use chemoreception to "smell" and "taste".
Crab Appendages Ten legs (five pairs) including a claw-bearing pair with spines used for feeding and defense, followed by three pairs of sharply pointed walking legs, and a pair modified as flat swimming paddles at the rear, swimming legs.
Crab Apron Abdomen of a crab, which is folded under the body; male's is narrow and long. Amature female's is semicircular, like the dome of the capitol building.
Crab Carapace The shell covering the body. It provides protective covering. It is made of chitin and covers cephalothorax of the crab.
Crab Cheliped The first pair of legs, carries the large claw which is used for defense and obtaining food. Male's claws are blue tipped with red; female's are red.
Crab Eyes Visual organs mounted on the ends of eyestalks. The eyestalks contain cells that release hormones that inhibit molting and the development of gonads.
Crab Lateral spines Paired points on the widest outside edges of the carapace.
Crab Sponge Egg masses. Numbers of eggs vary, some may contain as many as
Crab Swimmerets (pleopods) Paired abdominal appendages under the apron of the female crab on which the eggs are carried until they hatch.
Crab Swimming Legs The last paired abdominal appendages, flattened for swimming.
Crab Walking legs 3 pairs. Used for movement; crabs are capable of walking forward or diagonally, but usually they walk sideways.
Crab Gills Place of respiration and filtration, consisting of many plume-like filaments arranged around a central axis. There are eight gills on each side.
Crab Heart The pump of the circulatory system. It is broad in size and located in the lower center part of the body.
Crab Hepatopancreas Digestive gland. Large organ with several functions, including the secretion of digestive enzymes and absorption of digested food. It fills most of the area around the stomach, depending on its contents of food and water.
Crab Intestine Portion of the digestive system through which digested food passes.
Crab Stomach The organ of the digestive system that breaks down swallowed particles of food. It is lined with small hard plates and projections.
Crab Testes Part of the male reproductive system, located on top of the hepatopancreas on either side of the stomach.
Crab Ovaries Female reproductive organs that produce eggs and leading to the oviducts where eggs are released.
Crab Cartilage Encases muscles that aid in movement of the legs. The muscles are the edible portion of the crab.
Crocodile Crocodilian A member of the order Crocodylia, a group which includes crocodiles, alligators, caimans and gharials.
Crocodile Incubation The act of incubating eggs; that is, keeping them warm so that development is possible.
Crocodile Territorial An animal, a pair of animals or a colony that occupies and defends an area.
Crocodile Territory An area occupied and defended by an animal, a pair of animals or a colony.
Crocodile Ectothermic Animals which must use heat acquired from the environment and behavioral adaptations to regulate body temperature.
Crocodile Heterothermic Having a body temperature that fluctuates with that of the immediate environment; having no mechanism or a poorly developed mechanism for regulating internal body temperature (or), Animals that have little or no ability to regulate their body temperature, body temperatures fluctuate with the temperature of their environment, often referred to as 'cold blooded'.
Crocodile Bilateral Symmetry Having body symmetry such that the animal can be divided in one plane into two mirror image halves. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria.
Crocodile Iteroparous Offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) and across multiple seasons (or other periods hospitable to reproduction). Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes).
Crocodile Seasonal Breeding Breeding is confined to a particular season.
Crocodile Gonochoric Animals in which the sexes are separate, each individual being unisexual, either male or female, such as in most vertebrates.
Crocodile Oviparous Reproduction in which eggs are released by the female; development of offspring occurs outside the mother's body.
Crocodile Egg tooth Temporary modified epidermis.
Crocodile Palatal valve Fleshy extension at the rear of lower palate/ tongue covering the opening to the back of the throat.
Echinoderm Abactinal The area of the body opposite the mouth. Aboral in a direction away from the mouth; the part of the body opposite the mouth
Echinoderm Accessory dorsal arm plate In some ophiuroids, one or several small, symmetrically arranged plates that are inserted between the dorsal arm plate and the lateral arm plate.
Echinoderm Actinal The surface of the body that contains the mouth.
Echinoderm Adambulacral Towards, or immediately adjacent to, an ambulacrum.
Echinoderm Adapical In echinoids, towards the highest part of the test.
Echinoderm Adoral shields In ophiuroids, a pair of plates, one of which is found at each side of the oral shield.
Echinoderm Adpressed Squeezed against. The adpressed arm spines of ophiuroids are flattened against the sides of the arm.
Echinoderm Alcareous ring A ring of large ossicles surrounding the holothurian esophagus. It forms a point of insertion for longitudinal muscles and, when present, retractor muscles.
Echinoderm Ambulacral Groove In asteroids, the groove on the oral (ventral) surface of the arm, in which the tube feet are carried. Its sides are formed by the adambulacral plates, and it is roofed by the ambulacral plates. In crinoids, a furrow on the oral (dorsal) surface of the pinnules, arms, and central body, which is lined with cilia and bordered by the tube feet.
Echinoderm Ambulacrum A zone of the body that carries tube feet. Echinoderms generally have 5 ambulacra. The midline of an ambulacrum is a radius.
Echinoderm Anal Cone In crinoids and echinoids, a fleshy projection bearing the anus at its apex; also known as an anal tube
Echinoderm Apical System In echinoids, a ring of specialized skeletal plates, including the genital plates and ocular plates; usually located on the highest point of the test
Echinoderm Apodous (apodan) Lacking tube feet, in reference to holothurians.
Echinoderm Appendage A tube foot, spine, pedicellaria, or arm of an adult, or a projection from the larval body. In holothuroids, the tube feet may be modified to form a papilla lacking terminal suckers.
Echinoderm Arm Joint In ophiuroids, one of a series of articulating units comprising the arm, consisting of an internal vertebral ossicle, surrounding dorsal, lateral and ventral arm plates, and associated structures.
Echinoderm Arm length A body dimension of an ophiuroid measured from the edge of the disc to the tip of an arm.
Echinoderm Arm spines Spines attached to the lateral arm plate in ophiuroids, and to the marginal plates in asteroids.
Echinoderm Arm In asteroids, crinoids and ophiuroids, a moveable, jointed ambulacral projection, distal to the disc or calyx, that carries a radial branch of the water vascular system and the nervous system. Sometimes called a ray.
Echinoderm Armament A general term which describes an echinoderm’s array of spines and/or pedicellariae.
Echinoderm Asexual reproduction Reproduction that occurs without the fusion of male and female gametes, usually by splitting of the body into two parts that regenerate. The genetically identical offspring of asexual parents are a clone.
Echinoderm Autoevisceration In holothuroids, expulsion of the digestive tract and associated organs through the anus; in some species, the anterior end of the body ruptures and the calcareous ring and associated organs are expelled. Believed to be a defensive mechanism.
Echinoderm Autotomy A defensive process of self-mutilation initiated in response to adverse stimuli. It involves loss of portions of the body, such as the arms or disc in ophiuroids.
Echinoderm Basal In crinoids, one of a circlet of five plates that form part of the calyx.
Echinoderm Basket One of several types of microscopic skeletal ossicles in holothuroids; minute cup-shaped ossicle, usually with four projections
Echinoderm Baskets (CUPS) Are minute cup-shaped ossicles usually with four perforations.
Echinoderm Bilateral symmetry A pattern of symmetry, based upon an anterior-posterior axis, in which the left side of the body is a mirror image of the right side.
Echinoderm Bipinnaria A free-swimming larval stage of asteroids. Bipinnaria larvae have blunt larval appendages which support a ciliated band. The bipinnaria either may develop into a BRACHIOLARIA larva, or it may undergo metamorphosis during which the juvenile arises on the left side of the larval body.
Echinoderm Brooding Reproductive mode in which the embryos are protected on, in, or beneath the parent, and emerge as tiny, crawl away juveniles.
Echinoderm Buccal Lying within the mouth.
Echinoderm Bursa In ophiuroids, an organ within the disc formed by an inpouching of epidermis. Bursae function as respiratory structures and are associated with the gonoducts. They house the developing embryos of brooding species.
Echinoderm Bursal slit The opening of a bursa, located on the ventral interradius of the disc at the base of the arm. There generally is one bursal slit on each side of an arm.
Echinoderm Buttons Are minute, flat, with few perforations; they may be smooth or knobbed. Solid, irregularly-shaped miliary granules are found in the body wall and muscles of apodous holothuroids. Sieve-like perforated plates are widespread in holothuroids, and may be found in other echinoderm classes, especially in juvenile individuals. RODS are commonly found as supporting structures in tentacles or tube feet.
Echinoderm Calcite The mineral form of calcium carbonate that makes up the echinoderm skeleton.
Echinoderm Calyx The cuplike central portion of the crinoid body, which supports the arms and visceral mass.
Echinoderm Carinal Plates In asteroids, plates forming a keel or ridge along the abactinal surface of an arm.
Echinoderm Centrodorsal The middle ossicle attached to the aboral surface of the crinoid calyx; commonly carries cirri.
Echinoderm Cidaroids A subclass of echinoids which arose in the Triassic; typified by species that have few, large, solid spines.
Echinoderm Cirri The unbranched, jointed appendages arising from the crinoid centrodorsal; they are used for attachment to the substratum.
Echinoderm Cloaca In holothuroids, the posterior part of the intestine; it carries the openings to the respiratory trees and cuvierian tubules, when present.
Echinoderm Commensal An organism that lives in association with another organism, and which usually benefits from the partnership without harming its host.
Echinoderm Congeners The species belonging to a single genus.
Echinoderm Crenulate Grooved; refers to the ribbed edge of certain echinoid tubercles.
Echinoderm Cuvierian Tubules Defensive structures of some holothurians, discharged through the anus as sticky threads which entangle and discourage predators.
Echinoderm Dendritic Branching in a tree-like manner, as in certain holothuroid tentacles.
Echinoderm Dental Papillae A cluster of small, blunt, spinelike structures on the dental plate, near the ventral tip of the jaw.
Echinoderm Dermis The stratum of cells beneath the epidermal covering of the body wall. In echinoderms, the skeleton develops in the dermis and is filled with dermal tissue.
Echinoderm Digitate Fingerlike, or carrying fingerlike structures; applied to certain holothuroid tentacles.
Echinoderm Disc diameter A body dimension of an ophiuroid measured from the distal edge of a pair of radial shields to the disc edge in the opposite interradius.
Echinoderm Disc The round or pentagonal central body region of ophiuroids and asteroids
Echinoderm Distal In a direction away from the center of the body; for example, toward the tip of the arm in asteroids or the tip of a spine in echinoids
Echinoderm Dorsal Arm Plate A plate on the aboral surface of an ophiuroid arm joint; one of the plates on the aboral surface of an asteroid arm.
Echinoderm Dorsal In echinoderms, this term is variously applied. In asteroids, ophiuroids and echinoids, it usually refers to the surface of the body that is opposite the mouth, the surface that is uppermost. In holothuroids, with mouth and anus at opposite ends of a cylindrical body, the uppermost surface is considered dorsal. In crinoids, by convention, the surface opposite the mouth is considered dorsal even though it is functionally the ventral (lower) side.
Echinoderm Echinopluteus The free-swimming larval stage of an echinoid. Echinoplutei have appendages that are supported by skeleton, and that bear ciliary bands. The process of metamorphosis in which a juvenile echinoid arises from a rudiment on the left side of the echinopluteus body is completed in only a few minutes.
Echinoderm Echinulate Something spiny or prickly, usually referring to the microscopic texture of a skeletal element such as a spine
Echinoderm Embryo An early developmental stage that is enclosed in a fertilization membrane or protected by the body of the parent. It transforms into a juvenile through metamorphosis.
Echinoderm EPT (= Expanded Peripheral Trabeculae) Microscopic, transparent nodules on the surface of skeletal plates. In ophiocomid ophiuroids they are a component of a photoreceptor system.
Echinoderm Fascioles In many Irregular Echinoids, narrow bands of small, specialized spines; visible on the denuded test as bands of densely packed, tiny tubercles. Fascioles provide a flow of water to aid in respiration.
Echinoderm Fence Papillae Peg-shaped spinelets fringing the edge of the disc of Ophiophragmus species.
Echinoderm Fission Asexual reproduction by splitting of the body into two parts, each of which regenerates into a complete animal.
Echinoderm Food Groove In crinoids, furrows lined with cilia, which conduct particles of food from the pinnules to the arms, and then on to the mouth.
Echinoderm Fusiform Shaped like a spindle, broadest in the middle and tapering towards each end.
Echinoderm Gametogenesis The process of formation of reproductive cells, eggs, and sperms.
Echinoderm Genital Papilla In ophiuroids, granules or spinules attached to the edge of the bursal slit. The term is also used (perhaps more appropriately) for the fleshy outlets of the gonoducts in ophiuroids that lack bursae, and in some echinoids. In holothuroids, a single, fleshy genital papilla opens to the exterior on the dorsal surface of the body immediately posterior to the tentacles.
Echinoderm Genital Pinnule In crinoids, a pinnule that is distal to the oral pinnules that contains gonad tissues.
Echinoderm Genital Plate In ophiuroids, a bar-like ossicle connecting the radial shield to the arm and supporting the radial edge of the bursal slit.
Echinoderm Globiferous Pedicellaria A three-valved echinoid pedicellaria that is equipped with venom sacs.
Echinoderm Gonoduct Genital duct. A duct which carries eggs or sperms from the gonad to an external genital opening..
Echinoderm Granules That are minute and nearly equidimensional,
Echinoderm Heart Urchin A more or less heart-shaped burrowing echinoid, usually in the order Spatangoida.
Echinoderm Hermaphrodism A condition in organisms whereby one individual possesses both functional male and female reproductive structures; hermaphroditic individuals may express both sexes simultaneously, alternately, or sequentially
Echinoderm Hooks Minute, moveable, crescentic ossicles that articulate with the dorsal arm scales in gorgonocephalid ophiuroids (other ophiuroids may have hook-shaped arm spines attached to the lateral arm plates).
Echinoderm Inferomarginals In asteroids, a row of plates that define the ventral edge of the body; inferomarginals are overlain by a row of superomarginals.
Echinoderm Infradental Papillae In amphiurid ophiuroids, a pair of small, blocklike plates attached at the ventral tip of the jaw, below the teeth.
Echinoderm Interambulacral Area An oral or aboral section of the body lying between two ambulacra; in interradius; also known as an interambulacrum
Echinoderm Interambulacrum An oral or aboral sector of the body lying between two ambulacra. An interradius.
Echinoderm Interradial (Interradius, Interradii) Referring to interambulacral sectors of the body.
Echinoderm Interradial Referring to interambulacral areas of the body; interradius and interradii also commonly used
Echinoderm Introvert In some holothurians, the anterior of the body including tentacles and associated structures. It can be withdrawn into the body by means of retractor muscles.
Echinoderm Irregular Echinoid A heart-shaped or disc-shaped echinoid, usually covered with very short spines, generally living in or on soft sediment. Irregular echinoids have some degree of bilateral symmetry, as the anus is not at the center of the dorsal surface.
Echinoderm Jaw A moveable triangular structure that extends into the mouth in ophiuroids and asteroids. In the latter group, it is also referred to as a mouth-angle plate.
Echinoderm Labrum A posterior or lower projection of the border of the mouth in irregular echinoids.
Echinoderm Lappets In crinoids, small moveable plates that support the tube feet and form a protective covering over the food grooves.
Echinoderm Larva An early developmental stage that is independent of the fertilization membrane and the parent. Through metamorphosis it transforms into a juvenile.
Echinoderm Lateral Arm Plates In ophiuroids, paired plates covering the sides of each arm joint and bearing the arm spines.
Echinoderm Lecithotrophy A mode of reproduction in which free-swimming larvae develop using nutrient laid down in the egg. Lecithotrophic larvae do not feed on particulate matter, but they may supplement yolk reserves by the uptake of nutrients dissolved in seawater.
Echinoderm Lunule A slit in the echinoid test, as in the five or six-holed sand dollars.
Echinoderm Madreporite A plate with numerous perforations that is connected to the watervascular ring by a so-called stone canal. In most holothuroids it is internal. In asteroids and echinoids it opens to the exterior on the dorsal surface of the body; in ophiuroids it opens on the ventral surface, near the mouth. Crinoids lack a madreporite, having instead a series of small pores in the tegmen, opening to the body cavity.
Echinoderm Marginals In asteroids, plates covering the sides of the arms.
Echinoderm Ocular Plate A plate in the apical system of echinoids. The five ocular plates are radial (ambulacral) in position, and new ambulacral plates develop at their distal edges. In asteroids, the most distal plate of the arm, enclosing the terminal tube foot.
Echinoderm Ophiopluteus The free-swimming larval stage of an ophiuroid. Ophioplutei have appendages that are supported by skeleton and bear ciliary bands. During metamorphosis, the juvenile ophiuroid develops from a rudiment on the ventral surface of the larva; the process may involve resorption or loss of parts of larval structures.
Echinoderm Optic cushion A pigmented light-sensory structure of asteroids, projecting from the base of the ventral surface of the terminal tube foot.
Echinoderm Oral Papillae In ophiuroids, small plates at the edge of the mouth, attached to the edges of the jaw plate and/or to the aboral shield; may be variously shaped, from spine-like to scale-like
Echinoderm Oral Shield A relatively large plate at the distal end of the ophiuroid jaw. At least one of the oral shields is modified as a madreporite.
Echinoderm Oral Tentacles In ophiuroids, tube feet inside the mouth, arising from the jaws.
Echinoderm Oral In a direction toward the mouth; a part of the body on the same surface as the mouth
Echinoderm Ossicle types In holothuroids, the various types of microscopic skeletal ossicles can be broadly classified, based on their shapes. The shanks of fluked anchors are associated with shield-shaped anchor plates in the body wall of synaptid holothuroids.
Echinoderm Ossicle A small, usually microscopic skeletal element, embedded in integument. Commonly found in the body wall of holothurians, but also known from the body wall and body cavity tissues of other echinoderms (e.g., the ophiuroid stomach) and the tube feet of echinoids and asteroids. The term is sometimes used to refer to all skeletal elements, especially in crinoids.
Echinoderm Papillae In holothuroids, specialized dorsal tube feet that lack a suckered tip; in ophiuroids, certain skeletal elements of the jaws or disk
Echinoderm Papillate / Papillose Covered with papillae
Echinoderm Papulae Small, soft, retractable extensions of the body cavity that project through pores in the body wall of asteroids; used for respiration. Papulae may be finger or glove-shaped, and are sometimes arrayed in dense patches.
Echinoderm Paxillae In some asteroids, columnar plates that bear an apical cluster of spinelets or granules.
Echinoderm Paxillate In asteroids, carrying paxillae.
Echinoderm Pedicellariae Small stalked or unstalked pincer-like organs on the body of asteroids and echinoids, used for defense and grooming
Echinoderm Peltate Shield-shaped; used to describe the tentacles of some holothuroids
Echinoderm Penicillate Tube Foot In some echinoids, a long, extensible tube foot bearing a brush-like array of glandular projections at the tip.
Echinoderm Pentactula The post-metamorphic developmental stage of holothuroids with either planktotrophic or lecithotrophic larvae. It has an anterior mouth and buccal podia, and one or two tube feet.
Echinoderm Perforate Tubercle In echinoids, a primary or secondary tubercle with an apical perforation for the insertion of a ligament.
Echinoderm Perforated Plate One of several types of microscopic skeletal ossicles in holothuroids; sieve-like and widespread; may also be found in other echinoderm classes, especially in juvenile individuals
Echinoderm Peripetalous In echinoids, refers to a fasciole which runs around the distal extremities of the anterior and posterior petals (ambulacra I, II, IV, V) and crosses ambulacrum III.
Echinoderm Periproct In echinoids, a flexible region surrounding the anus, which consists of a membrane containing embedded plates and often bearing spines and pedicellariae
Echinoderm Peristome In echinoids, the area of the test which carries the mouth. The surrounding peristomial membrane is commonly plated.
Echinoderm Perradial In echinoids, having a meridional position at the midline of an ambulacrum.
Echinoderm Pinnate Feather-like.
Echinoderm Pinnular Comb A group of modified pinnulars (see PINNULE) of an oral pinnule, which has a comblike profile. Present in Comasteridae and some Antedonidae.
Echinoderm Pinnule In crinoids, an unbranched appendage arising from a brachial ossicle and composed of a series of pinnular ossicles.
Echinoderm Planktotrophy The mode of development of free-swimming larvae that feed on particulate matter. Planktotrophic larvae grow using nutrients obtained from the plankton.
Echinoderm Plates One of several types of skeletal elements in echinoderms; tabular structures with a characteristic shape and a fixed position
Echinoderm Polian Vesicle Fluid-filled sacs attached to the water-vascular ring. They act as resevoirs, holding fluid that is displaced when tube feet contract.
Echinoderm Polyporous In echinoids, a compound ambulacral plate with many pore pairs, usually five or more.
Echinoderm Pore Pair Ambulacral pore divided by a skeletal wall, through which a single tube foot passes.
Echinoderm Primary Plates The first-formed plates on the dorsal side of the disk; in ophiuroids, these are the central and five radial plates; in adults, they may form a rosette of scales near the center of the disk, or they may be separated by numerous secondarily developed scales
Echinoderm Primary Spines In echinoids, the first-formed, larger spines; carried on primary tubercles in ambulacra and interambulacra.
Echinoderm Proximal Towards the center of the body. R. A body dimension of an asteroid, the major radius, measured from the center of the disc to the tip of the longest arm. r. A body dimension of an asteroid, the minor radius, measured from the center of the disc to the edge of the disc in the middle of an interradius.
Echinoderm Radial Shields Pairs of plates on the dorsal surface of the ophiuroid disc, which lie near the base of each arm. They are usually relatively large and conspicuous, but may be hidden by granules or superficial scales.
Echinoderm Radial Symmetry A pattern of symmetry in which identical segments of the body are arranged around a central axis. Echinoderms generally have a five-part (pentamerous) radial symmetry.
Echinoderm Radial In a direction toward the central axis of an arm or ambulacrum; a part of the body near an arm or ambulacrum
Echinoderm Regular Echinoid A more or less spherical echinoid, with long spines, and with the anus situated at the center of the aboral surface. Typically lives on hard bottoms, or among marine plants.
Echinoderm Respiratory Trees Paired respiratory organs of some holothuroids. They are attached to the cloaca, just inside the anus, and project anteriorly in the body cavity.
Echinoderm Retractor In holothurians, one of five muscles which act to pull the tentacles into the safety of the buccal cavity.
Echinoderm Rheophilic Literally, "current-loving." Rheophilic organisms prefer habitats with significant water movement. Rheophobic organisms avoid currents, and occupy sheltered positions or are restricted to low-energy habitats.
Echinoderm Rods One of several types of microscopic skeletal ossicles in holothuroids; commonly found as supporting structures in tentacles or tube feet
Echinoderm Rosette Modified basal ossicles of some crinoids; a microscopic ossicle of some holothuroids. Scrobicular. In echinoids, surrounding the base of a spine.
Echinoderm Scales One of several types of skeletal elements in echinoderms; flat, thin structures that are overlapping, tessellate, or haphazardly arrayed
Echinoderm Secondary Spines In echinoids, the smaller spines carried on secondary tubercles in the ambulacra and interambulacra.
Echinoderm Sensory Cup A stalked cup-like sensory organ on the tentacle stems of some holothuroids.
Echinoderm Skeletal Elements Supporting and protective dermal structures consisting of a calcite meshwork (stereom) and invested with a thin layer of tissue (stroma).
Echinoderm Sole In some holothuroids, the flattened ventral part of the body, either covered with tube feet or surrounded by feet.
Echinoderm Sphaeridia Orientation organs generally situated near the mouth of echinoids, consisting of a tiny spine with a swollen tip, set in a pit or a closed chamber.
Echinoderm Spinelets That are enlarged, elongate cylindrical, or angular granules (this term is sometimes applied to small spines)
Echinoderm Spines Are moveable, articulating structures that are long, slender, and attenuated. Small structures fixed to the surface of scales or plates include
Echinoderm Spinules That have various numbers of pointed apical projections (e.g. bifid, trifid, multifid). Also fixed, and relatively larger than granules, are small structures referred to as stumps, which are usually prickly, and tubercles which are smooth and more massive.
Echinoderm Statocyst In some holothurians, a sensory organ of balance, consisting of a hollow sphere lined by sensory receptor cells, which contains moveable granules.
Echinoderm Stone canal A tube, usually reinforced with ossicles, leading from the madreporite to the water-vascular ring canal.
Echinoderm Superomarginals In asteroids, a row of plates defining the dorsal edge of the body. They overlie a row of inferomarginals
Echinoderm Tables Consist of a basal perforated disc and a central spire composed of three or more rods joined by crossbars.
Echinoderm Tabulate Spines with a flat upper or distal surface.
Echinoderm Teeth In ophiuroids, small plates or spines attached to the dental plate on the inner edge of the jaw, a series of them extending into the mouth; in echinoids, the five hard, sharp, and movable ossicles incorporated in Aristotle’s lantern; the term also refers to five movable ossicles that surround the anus of some holothuroids
Echinoderm Tegmen The surface of the crinoid visceral mass that bears the mouth and confluent food grooves leading to the arms, as well as the anus. It may be naked or reinforced with ossicles or plates.
Echinoderm Tentacle Pore In ophiuroids, an opening between the ventral arm plate and the lateral arm plate, through which a tube foot projects. Each arm joint has two tentacle pores.
Echinoderm Tentacle Scales Small, moveable spines or scales, associated with ophiuroid tube feet, which are attached to the ventral arm plate and/or lateral arm plate. Tentacle scales may cover the tentacle pores and protect the retracted tube feet.
Echinoderm Tentacles In holothuroids, feeding structures in the form of highly modified tube feet arranged in a ring around the mouth.
Echinoderm Terminal Disc Round portion on the end of the tube foot in many echinoderms; usually employed for attachment to substrates
Echinoderm Test The "shell" of an echinoid, made up of many small skeletal plates. A "naked" test is one from which soft tissue, and projecting structures such as spines, have been removed. This process occurs naturally after the death of a sea urchin. To identify some urchins, it is necessary to clean a portion of the test with bleach, to see the underlying plates.
Echinoderm Trifid Divided into three parts. Regarding "trifid spinule"
Echinoderm Trigeminate An echinoid ambulacral plate, have three pore-pairs.
Echinoderm Tube Feet Fluid-filled, fingerlike extensions of the water vascular system that protrude through the openings in the skeleton or between skeletal elements; muscles and nerves in the shaft of the tube feet control their movements; glands, and sometimes a muscular sucker, at the tip function in adhesion; specialized tube feet are used for locomotion, feeding, burrowing, respiration, and a combination of functions
Echinoderm Tubercle A rounded prominence on the skeleton. In echinoids and some asteroids, a spine articulates with a tubercle.
Echinoderm Tuberculated Carrying numerous tubercles.
Echinoderm Ventral Arm Plate A plate on the oral surface of each ophiuroid arm joint; one of the plates on the oral surface of an asteroid arm.
Echinoderm Ventral In echinoderms, this term is variously applied. In asteroids, echinoids, and ophiuroids, it is the surface of the body that carries the mouth; this surface is in contact with the substrate. In the holothuroids, with mouth and anus at opposite ends of a cylindrical body, the ventral surface is lowermost - in contact with the substrate. In crinoids, the ventral surface carries the mouth, and is functionally the uppermost surface.
Echinoderm Vermiform Worm shaped.
Echinoderm Vertebra An internal ossicle within every ophiuroid arm joint, connected by ligament and muscle to the vertebrae of adjacent joints. It is so named because of a resemblance to bones in the human spinal column.
Echinoderm Vitellaria A type of free-swimming lecithotrophic echinoderm larva. It is barrelshaped, has several transverse rings of locomotory cilia, and lacks a mouth.
Echinoderm Wheels Are common in some apodous holothuroids, they usually have six spokes and a serrated rim.
Fish Abdomen Belly
Fish Abdominal Pertaining to the belly
Fish Absolute abundance Absolute abundance is the total number of a kind of fish in the population. This is rarely known, but usually estimated from relative abundance, although other methods may be used
Fish Absolute recruitment The number of fish grow into the catchable size range in a unit of time (usually a year)
Fish Actinosts A series of bones at the base of the pectoral rays
Fish Acuminate Tapering gradually to a point
Fish Acute Sharp, pointed
Fish Adelphophagous A mode of feeding where an embryo feeds on other embryos within the uterus of the female
Fish Adipose Fatty
Fish Adipose fin A small fleshy fin which lacks fin rays
Fish Adnate Joined together
Fish Adpressed Pressed against the body
Fish Aestivate To be inactive during warm dry periods
Fish Airbladder Buoyancy organ possessed by most bony fishes and also called as swim bladder
Fish Alimentary canal The passage through which food passes, starting at the mouth and ending at the anus
Fish Anal Pertaining to the anus
Fish Anal fin The fin on the median line behind the vent
Fish Anal fin origin The most anterior point of the anal fin base
Fish Ankylosed Grown firmly together
Fish Anterior Relating to the front portion
Fish Antrose Turned forward
Fish Anus The external opening of the intestine, the vent
Fish Artisan Someone who practices a craft as a livelihood
Fish Artisan fishing A small scale commercial or subsistence fishing practices
Fish Asperity Roughness of surface
Fish Asymetrical Without symmetry
Fish Attenuate Tapering to a point
Fish Axillary Process an enlarged, pointed scale projecting from the insertion of the pectoral or pelvic fin
Fish Bait fish Are small fish caught for use as bait to attract large predatory fishes
Fish Barbels Fleshy whisker like extensions, usually under the mouth
Fish Basal Pertaining to the base
Fish Biconcave tail Outer and inner fin rays longer giving a double concave shape (same as double emarginated)
Fish Bicuspid Having two cusps or points
Fish Bifid Cleft in two
Fish Bifurcate Forked or divided into two parts or branches
Fish Blotch Pigmented spot with an indistinct outline or shape
Fish Branchial Pertaining to the gills
Fish Branchial aperture The gill opening
Fish Branchiostegals, Branchiostegal ray(s) Bony rays supporting the gill membranes behind the lower jaw
Fish Bristle A stiff hair like projection
Fish Buckler A bony shield
Fish Bycatch Species other than the target species that are caught incidentally in a trawl
Fish Canines Conical teeth which are longer than other teeth
Fish Caniniform shaped Like a canine tooth, conical in form
Fish Carapace A horny or bony covering encasing the body
Fish Carinate Keeled, having a ridge along the middle line
Fish Caruncle A fleshy outgrowth
Fish Catadromous "Catadromous" species, spawn in the ocean but live part of their lives in fresh water
Fish Caudal Pertaining to the tail
Fish Caudal fin The tail fin
Fish Caudal peduncle Region of the body between end of anal fin and base of caudal fin
Fish Choroid fissure Line of juncture of invaginating borders of the optic cup
Fish Choroid tissue An undifferentiated mass of unpigmented tissue adhering to the ventral surface of the eye
Fish Chromatophore A modified dermal cell that contains pigment and gives the fish its colour
Fish Ciliated Fringed with eyelash like projections
Fish Cirri Small, thin appendages often subdivided into branches
Fish Cleithrum A prominent bone of pectoral girdle
Fish Coalesced Grown together
Fish Cohort Those individuals of a stock born in the same spawning season
Fish Compressed Flattened laterally
Fish Confluent Joined together
Fish Conical Cone shaped, with a cylindrical base and a pointed tip
Fish Corselet A scaly covering behind the pectorals of some fishes
Fish Countershading body Colouration which is dark above and lighter below
Fish Crenulate Having the edge slightly scalloped
Fish Ctenoid Rough edged
Fish Cusp A pointed or rounded projection on the chewing surface of a tooth
Fish Cutaneous Pertaining to the skin
Fish Cycloid Smooth edged
Fish Deciduous Easily removed / rubbed off, temporary, falling off
Fish Demersal Living on or near the sea bed
Fish Demersal egg An egg which remains on the bottom either free or attached to the substratum
Fish Dendritic Resembling a tree or shrub
Fish Dentate With tooth like projections
Fish Depressed Flattened from top to bottom
Fish Dermal Pertaining to the skin
Fish Dewlap A fold of loose skin
Fish Diadromous Species which undertakes spawning migration from ocean to river or vice versa.
Fish Dimorphic Body shape and colour varies between the sexes
Fish Disc The flattened head and body of fishes
Fish Distal Remote from the point of attachment
Fish Dorsal Pertaining to the back
Fish Dorsal fin Fin on dorsal side
Fish Dorsal fin origin Anterior most point of the dorsal fin base
Fish Dorsum The upper surface of the head or body
Fish Egg survey A systematic and scientific estimation of the abundance of eggs in an area, through sampling at the bottom or in the water column with appropriate devices
Fish Electrocyte A cell that generates electricity
Fish Elongate Extended, drawn out
Fish Emarginate With the margin slightly hollowed
Fish Endemic Restricted to a particular region
Fish Epibenthic Referring to organisms living on the bottom surface
Fish Epipelagic Referring to organisms living in the region between surface and 200 m depth
Fish Erectile Capable of being raised or erected, often referring to spines
Fish Esca The lure or "bait" on the end of the illicium of some anglerfishes and relatives
Fish Estuarine Living in estuaries
Fish Eye diameter (ED) Horizontal distance across the midline of pigmented region of the eye
Fish Falcate Scythe shaped, long, narrow and curved
Fish Falcate tail Tail fin shaped like a sickle, deeply concave, with the middle rays much shorter than the anterior or posterior rays
Fish Falciform Curved like a scythe
Fish Fecundity The number of eggs a fish produces each reproductive cycle
Fish Filament A slender or thread like structure
Fish Filiform Thread like
Fish Fimbriate Fringed at the margin
Fish Fin length Length of the longest soft ray of designated fin
Fish Finfold Medial fold of integument that extends along body of developing fishes and from which medial fins arise
Fish Finlet A small fin, positioned behind the dorsal or anal fins, that is supported by a ray or rays
Fish Fishery Fishery is characterised by the species caught, the fishing gear used and the area of operation. It may involve capture of wild fish or rising of fish through aquaculture
Fish Fishing fleet An aggregation of fishing vessels of a particular country or particular gear
Fish Fishing vessel a vessel (provide assistance to other fishing vessels such as supply, storage, refrigeration, transportation or processing) normally used for harvesting living aquatic resources
Fish Fishmeal A fish based protein rich animal feed product
Fish Fleshy tail Tail with fleshy knob
Fish Flexion Bending upward of the notochord tip as part of the process of caudal fin formation
Fish Flexion larva Development stage beginning with flexion of notochord and ending with hypural bones assuming a vertical position
Fish Fluviatile Living in rivers
Fish Fork length The length of a fish as measured from the tip of the snout to the fork of the caudal fin
Fish Free rear tips (of fins) The posterior tip of fin closest to the most posterior point of fin base
Fish Frontal ridge A ridge running along the top of the head along the midline
Fish Furcate Forked
Fish Fusiform Tapering towards both ends
Fish Gametes Eggs and sperm
Fish Gas bladder Membranous, gas filled organ located between the kidneys and alimentary canal in teleost fishes
Fish Gill arches The bony arches in which gills are attached
Fish Gill cover Bony flap that covers the gills, the operculum
Fish Gill filaments A series of projections along the posterior edge of the gill arch, the site of gas exchange
Fish Gill membranes Membranes covering the gill openings, attached to the branchiostegals
Fish Gill opening Opening behind each operculum, leading to the gills
Fish Gill rakers A series of appendages along the anterior edges of the gill arches
Fish Gill Organs for breathing the air contained in water
Fish Glossohyal Tongue bone of fish
Fish Gonads Sexual organs which produces eggs or sperm
Fish Gonopodium Modification of anal fin in some male fishes used to transfer reproductive products to the female
Fish Gravid Sexually ripe
Fish Gular Region behind the chin and between the sides of lower jaw
Fish Head length (HL) Distance from snout tip to the most posterior point of opercular margin
Fish Head width Transverse distance between margins at the widest area of the head
Fish Homology Similarity of features based on common evolutionary descent
Fish Hyaline Translucent or transparent
Fish Hyperostosis A condition resulting in enlargement of areas of bone
Fish Hypural Joint the joint between the caudal fin and the last of the vertebrae
Fish Hypural plate The flattened bony plate at the posterior end of the vertebral column, formed from parts of the posterior vertebrae
Fish Ichthyocide A substance used to kill (and usually collect) fishes
Fish Ichthyoplankton Fish eggs and larvae floating on the surface of water
Fish Illicium A fishing rod like appendage on the head of frog fish
Fish Imbricate Overlapping
Fish Incipient fin ray Early stage in fin ray development (unossified thickening in finfold articulating with the fin base)
Fish Incised With a notched margin (often referring to fin membranes)
Fish Incisors The front or cutting teeth
Fish Inferior Pertaining to the lower side (usually of the head)
Fish Interdorsal Between the dorsal fins
Fish Interorbital The space between the orbits
Fish Intromittent A structure to facilitate sperm transfer in some internally fertilizing species
Fish Iris lappet A fleshy flap or lobe like structure in the eye (may be short and rounded, simple or multiply branched)
Fish Isthmus The fleshy projection of the body separating the gill openings
Fish Jugostegalia Basket like structure of over lapping free branchiostegal rays used as support for the extended branchial region in some eels.
Fish Jugular Pertaining to the throat
Fish Juvenile Developmental stage from attainment of full external meristic complements and loss of temporary specializations for pelagic life to sexual maturity
Fish Juxtaposed Placed near together
Fish Labial Pertaining to the lips
Fish Labial furrows Shallow grooves around the lips
Fish Labial papillae Small fleshy projections around the lips
Fish Lacrymal, lachrymal Anterior bone of infraorbital series (frequently overlaps the maxilla when the mouth is closed)
Fish Lanceolate Spear shaped, gradually tapering toward the extremity
Fish Larva Developmental stage between hatching (or birth) and attainment of full external meristic complements (fins and scales) and loss of temporary specializations for pelagic life
Fish Larval teeth A little exerted spines on the premaxilla or dentary
Fish Lateral At or toward the side
Fish Lateral line A series of muciferous tubes forming a raised line along the side of body
Fish Longitudinal series (scales) The number of scale rows above the lateral line from the first pored lateral line scale to the caudal fin base
Fish Lunate Shaped like a crescent moon, with long upper and lower lobes
Fish Lyosphaera stage A specialized pelagic juvenile stage in the genus Chilomycterus, where elongate papillae develop but these fail to form spines.
Fish Mandible The lower jaw
Fish Maxilla, Maxillary The upper jaw
Fish Median fins Fins located on the median line of the fish (dorsal, anal and caudal fins)
Fish Mediolateral Between the middle and the sides
Fish Melanin A black pigment
Fish Melanophores Melanin bearing cells (frequently capable of expansions and contractions which change their size and shape)
Fish Mesocoracoid A bone of the pectoral arch or shoulder girdle
Fish Mesopelagic Fishes that live in the mesopelagic zone
Fish Midwater fishes Fishes that live in the midwater (well below the surface and well above the seabed)
Fish Molars Blunt and rounded grinding teeth
Fish Morphology Form and structure of an organism
Fish Mouthwidth The gape transverse distance between corners of the mouth
Fish Muciferous Producing or containing mucous or slime
Fish Myosepta Connective tissue partitions separating adjacent myomeres
Fish Myotomes Serial muscle bundles of the body
Fish Nape Upper surface of the body behind the head and before the dorsal fin
Fish Nasal Pertaining to the nostrils
Fish Nasoral Between the nostrils and mouth
Fish Nictitating membrane An inner eyelid
Fish Notochord Longitudinal supporting axis of body which is eventually replaced as a support by the vertebral column in teleostean fishes
Fish Notochord length Straight line distance from tip of snout to posterior tip of notochord
Fish Nuchal Pertaining to the nape
Fish Obsolete Faintly marked, scarcely evident
Fish Obtuse Blunt
Fish Occipital Pertaining to the posterior part of the skull
Fish Ocellus An eye like spot
Fish Ocular Pertaining to the eye
Fish Oesophagus The gullet
Fish Olfactory organs The organs used for smelling, commonly beneath the nostrils
Fish Olfactory pit A shallow depression on the snout from which olfactory organ develops
Fish Opercular Pertaining to the operculum
Fish Opercular spine Spine projecting from the operculum
Fish Opercule, operculum The bony flap that covers the gills
Fish Orbit The eye socket
Fish Osseus Bony
Fish Ossicle A bony plate
Fish Otic capsule Sensory anlage from which the ear develops
Fish Otolith Calcareous structures in the ear capsules of bony fishes
Fish Ovate Egg shaped
Fish Oviparous Species that produces eggs hatched outside of the body
Fish Palate Roof of the mouth
Fish Palatines Bones on each side of the palate Papilla (papillae) a small fleshy projection(s)
Fish Papillose Covered with papillae
Fish Pectoral Pertaining to the breast
Fish Pectoral bud Swelling at site of future pectoral fin
Fish Pectoral fins The anterior or uppermost of the paired fins
Fish Pectoral girdle The bones to which the pectoral fin attached
Fish Pelagic Living on or in the open seas
Fish Pelagic egg Egg which floats freely in the water column
Fish Pelagic juvenile Pre settlement juvenile of a species that is benthic or reef associated as an adult
Fish Pelvic bud Swelling at site of future pelvic (ventral)
Fish Pelvic fins Paired fins behind or below the pectoral fins
Fish Pelvic girdle The bones to which the ventral fins are attached
Fish Peritoneum The membrane lining the abdominal cavity
Fish Pharyngeal bones Bones behind the gills in the oesophagus or gullet
Fish Pharyngeal teeth Teeth within the pharynx
Fish Pharynx The back part of the throat in which the gill slits open
Fish Photophore A circular light producing organ on the surface of a fish
Fish Piscivorous An organism that feeds upon fishes
Fish Planktivore An animal with a diet that consists mainly of plankton
Fish Postanal myomeres Myomeres posterior to the posterior margin of the anus
Fish Posterior Towards the hind end of the fish
Fish Postflexion larva Developmental stage from formation of the caudal fin to attainment of full external meristic complements and loss of temporary specializations for pelagic life
Fish Postorbital Behind the eye
Fish Pre dorsal fin length Distance from tip of snout along the midline to the origin of dorsal fin
Fish Pre gas bladder length Distance from the tip of the snout along the midline to the anterior edge of gas bladder
Fish Pre pelvic fin length Distance from the tip of snout along the midline to the origin of the pelvic fin
Fish Preanal length (PAL) Distance from the tip of the snout along the midline to the posterior edge of the anus
Fish Precaudal Anterior to the tail portion
Fish Preflexion larva Developmental stage beginning at hatching and ending at the start of upward flexion of the notochord
Fish Prehensile Adapted for holding such as the tail of a seahorse
Fish Premaxillaries Two bones forming the front portion of the upper jaw
Fish Preocular spine Spine positioned above and in front of the eye
Fish Preopercle preoperculum Bone between the cheek and the gill cover
Fish Preopercular spine Spine projecting from the preopercule
Fish Preorbital Area under and in front of the eyes
Fish Protractile Capable of extending forward
Fish Protrusible Capable of extending forward often referring to the jaws of fishes
Fish Proximal Nearest
Fish Pseudobranchiae Small gills developed on the inner side of gill cover
Fish Pseudoclasper Stiff ossified lobes or prongs in the tip of intromittent organ
Fish Pterygiophore An internal cartilage or bone that supports a median fin ray or spine
Fish Ramus One branch or one half of the jaw
Fish Ray A jointed rod which supports a fin.
Fish Retrose Turned backward
Fish Rostrum A projecting snout or beak
Fish Rugose Rough
Fish Scalation Pertains to the pattern/ arrangement/ presence of scales
Fish Scute Any external horny or bony plate
Fish Serrate Notched like a saw
Fish Setae Bristles or hairs
Fish Sexual dimorphism Differences in physical appearance between the sexes
Fish Snout length (SnL) Horizontal distance from the tip of snout to the anterior margin of pigmented region of the eye
Fish Soft dorsal Posterior part of dorsal fin composed of jointed rays
Fish Soft rays Bilaterally paired, usually segmented fin supports
Fish Spatulate Shovel like having a broad, flat and rounded shape
Fish Spawning The production or depositing of large quantities of eggs in water
Fish Spine A sharp projecting point
Fish Spine length Straight line distance of a fin or body spine from base to tip.
Fish Spinous, spiniform, spinate Spine like or composed of spines
Fish Spiracles Respiratory openings behind the eyes in sharks and rays
Fish Standard length (SL) Length of a fish measured from the tip of snout to posterior extremity of hypural plate (the expanded bones at the end of the backbone that support the caudal fin)
Fish Submarginal Almost at the edge
Fish Suborbital Below the eye
Fish Suborbital stay A bony, often spine bearing, ridge below the eye
Fish Superior Above or on the upper surface
Fish Supracleithrum Bone forming a connection between back of skull and pectoral girdle
Fish Supralateral Above the side
Fish Supramaxillary A supplemental bone lying along the upper edge of the maxillary
Fish Supraocular Positioned above the eye
Fish Supraorbital Above the eye
Fish Supraorbital tentacle A flap or filament of skin positioned above the eye
Fish Suprascapular A bone uniting the shoulder girdle with skull
Fish Suture Line of union of two bones or plates
Fish Swim bladder A sac filled with gas, lying beneath the backbone
Fish Symbiosis Used to describe any association between two organisms
Fish Symphysis Point of junction of two sides of the jaw
Fish Symmetrical Similarly arranged on both sides
Fish Tail The portion of body posterior to the anus.
Fish Teleost A large group containing most of the bony fishes
Fish Terminal At the end
Fish Tessellated Marked with little checks or squares, like tiles
Fish Thoracic Pertaining to the chest
Fish Thorax Chest region, just behind the head
Fish Total length (TL) Length from the tip of the snout to the tip of the tail
Fish Transverse Crosswise
Fish Tricuspid With three cusps or points
Fish Trilobate With three lobes
Fish Truncate Terminating abruptly, as if cut off square
Fish Trunk Region between head and anus or between last gill slit and vent
Fish Tubercle A small, usually hard excrescence or lump
Fish Tubiform, Tubuliform Resembling a tube
Fish Tympanum Area of enlarged scales behind the gill opening that can be vibrated to produce sound, in triggerfishes and filefishes
Fish Undulated Waved uniform of one colour
Fish Urogenital papilla A papilla through which urinary waste and gametes leave the body
Fish Vent The external opening of alimentary canal, the anus
Fish Vent to anal fin length Straight line distance from posterior edge of the vent (anus) to anterior origin of the anal fin or anal fin anlage
Fish Ventral Pertaining to the abdominal or lower surface
Fish Ventral fins Paired fins behind or below the pectoral fins
Fish Vertebrae The bones of spinal column
Fish Vestigial Reduced or very poorly developed
Fish Villiform teeth Small, slender teeth forming velvety bands
Fish Viviparous Species that gives birth to live young
Fish Vomer A bone forming the front part of the mouth roof
Fish Vomerine teeth Teeth on the vomer
Fish Xanthism (xanthic, xanthochroism) An unusual colour variety in which the normal colouration of a fish is largely replaced by yellow pigments
Fish Yolk sac A bag like ventral extension of the primitive gut containing the yolk
Fish Yolk sac larva Developmental stage beginning with hatching and ending with exhaustion of yolk reserves and characterized by presence of a yolk sac
Gastropod Above In a gastropod, towards the posterior end.
Gastropod Adpressed Joined by overlapping; the opposite to impressed.
Gastropod Anal canal A canal, normally open, at the upper (or posterior) end of the gastropod aperture, through which solid waste matter is voided.
Gastropod Ancillid groove A spiral groove below the centre of the body whorl on ancillid shells.
Gastropod Angulation Formed from corners; angled.
Gastropod Anterior At or towards the front or head end of a shell.
Gastropod Anterior canal An open or closed tubular shell extension at the anterior end of a shell, through which the siphon is extended. Same as siphonal canal
Gastropod Aperture The major opening of a gastropod shell.
Gastropod Aperture entire Uninterrupted; without an anterior notch.
Gastropod Apex The tip of the spire.
Gastropod Apical whorls Those whorls near the apex.
Gastropod Axial Pertaining to or more or less parallel to the axis of coiling of a gastropod shell.
Gastropod Axial sculpture Sculpture running parallel to the axis in a gastropod shell.
Gastropod Axis An imaginary line through the apex of a gastropod shell, about which the whorls are coiled.
Gastropod Basal Pertaining to the base.
Gastropod Basal margin In a gastropod shell, the angled portion of the body whorl separating the base from the remainder of the whorl.
Gastropod Base In coiled gastropods, the zone below the periphery of the body whorl.
Gastropod Bead A small, more or less hemispherical protuberance resembling a bead. Beads are smaller than nodules.
Gastropod Beaded Sculptured so as to resemble beads, or strings of beads.
Gastropod Below In a gastropod, situated more towards the anterior end.
Gastropod Benthic Living on the seabed
Gastropod Bifid Having two parts.
Gastropod Body whorl The most recently formed whorl of a gastropod shell, terminating in the aperture.
Gastropod Bottom In a gastropod shell, the anterior end.
Gastropod Calcareous Made of, or mostly, calcium carbonate.
Gastropod Callus Calcareous thickening
Gastropod Canaliculate Prominently grooved; channelled.
Gastropod Cancellate A sculpture produced by axial ribs crossed by spiral ribs of about the same size and spacing, giving a lattice-like appearance. Latticed.
Gastropod Carinate DONT USE. Use 'keeled'
Gastropod Columella A pillar surrounding the axis around which the shell is coiled, formed by the inner surface of the whorls. The wall opposite the outer apertural lip.
Gastropod Columellar Pertaining to the columella.
Gastropod Columellar deck In nerites, the area on the ventral surface of the shell covered by the columellar callus.
Gastropod Columellar pillar The lower end of the columella, particularly in ancillid shells.
Gastropod Columellar shield A plate of callus, most evident in the family Cassidae, extending from the columella onto the ventral shell surface.
Gastropod Concentric DONT USE. Use 'spiral'
Gastropod Congeneric In the same genus.
Gastropod Conspecific The same species.
Gastropod Cord DONT USE. Use rib, riblet or thread.
Gastropod Corneous Made of horny material.
Gastropod Coronate With tubercules or nodules around the shoulders of the whorls
Gastropod Crenulate Having a regularly notched or scalloped edge.
Gastropod Decollate With the apex broken off.
Gastropod Denticle A small tooth-like projection.
Gastropod Denticulate Toothed.
Gastropod Dextral Coiled with a right hand spiral. i.e. clockwise when viewed from the apex.
Gastropod Dorsal Of, pertaining to, or situated on the back or upper surface; in a gastropod shell, opposite the aperture. Opposite to ventral.
Gastropod Dorsum The dorsal surface of a shell.
Gastropod Endemic Peculiar to a region
Gastropod Entire Continuous; having no breaks. When applied to the aperture of a gastropod, the aperture in not interrupted by an anterior or posterior canal.
Gastropod Eroded Worn away.
Gastropod Fasciolar band Fasciole
Gastropod False umbilicus An umbilicus-like opening found in some gastropods, but not the true umbilicus.
Gastropod Fasciole A raised spiral band near the anterior end of some gastropod shells, formed by successive edges of the anterior canal.
Gastropod Fenestrate Literally, windowed; having a sculpture of crossed axial and spiral ribs or riblets, forming rectangular pits as in a multi-pane window.
Gastropod Flaring Opening or spreading outwards; said especially of the outer lip of the aperture.
Gastropod Fold A major constriction or gathering of the shell surface.
Gastropod Foliaceous With thin, leaf-like lamellae.
Gastropod Foot The muscular ventral part of the gastropod body used for locomotion.
Gastropod Fossula A pit or depression on the anterior part of the inner lip.
Gastropod Frond A foliaceous, leaf-like extension of a sculptural element, as on a varical spine
Gastropod Funicle Spiral ridge running into the umbilicus.
Gastropod Fusiform Spindle shaped; swollen at the centre and tapering almost equally towards the ends.
Gastropod Granulose Grainy or finely pustulose; covered with granules.
Gastropod Growth line More or less axial line representing former resting position of the outer lip.
Gastropod Height Distance from the apex to the anterior tip of a gastropod shell. Also called length.
Gastropod Heterostrophic The protoconch coils in a different direction to the rest of the shell; usually applies to the protoconch coiling sinistrally and the teleoconch dextrally.
Gastropod Holotype The single specimen designated as the type by the original author of a species name at the time of the original description.
Gastropod Homonym One of two or more identical but independently proposed names for different species, genera or taxa.
Gastropod Imbricated With scales overlapping each other like roof tiles.
Gastropod Impressed Joined by forming a groove; opposite to adpressed.
Gastropod Inner lip The lip of the aperture closest to the axis of coiling of a gastropod shell. (Not the inside of the outer lip).
Gastropod Intertidal Living between high and low tide levels.
Gastropod Intervarical Between the varices.
Gastropod Keel A sharply raised ridge, with parallel sides, as in the keel of a ship.
Gastropod Lamella (Pl. lamellae). A thin plate or scale, more or less erect. See also scales.
Gastropod Latticed Having a sculpture of crossed axial and spital ribs or riblets, not necessarily at right angles.
Gastropod Lira (Pl. lirae). A ridge on the shell surface within the aperture of a gastropod shell.
Gastropod Lirate With lirae.
Gastropod Liration DONT USE. USE Lirae.
Gastropod Littoral The zone of the shore between high and low tide levels.
Gastropod Maculate Patterned with regular or irregular patches. ie with maculations.
Gastropod Mantle The thin skin-like organ which covers the body mass of molluscs and contains the shell-secreting glands.
Gastropod Mantle line The line on the dorsal surface of a cowry shell where the mantle lobes meet.
Gastropod Nacreous With a layer of nacre, or mother-of-pearl.
Gastropod Nodule A rounded protuberance; larger than a bead.
Gastropod Nodulose Bearing rounded protuberances.
Gastropod Oblique Slanting; inclined from the horizontal or vertical.
Gastropod Obsolete Slight, barely apparent.
Gastropod Operculum The corneous or calcareous structure attached to the posterior end of the foot of many gastropod shells that closes the aperture when the animal withdraws into the shell.
Gastropod Opisthocline Refers to the slope of the outer lip of a gastropod shell sloping backwards in relation to the direction of shell growth.
Gastropod Orthocline Refers to the slope of the outer lip of a gastropod shell being parallel to the shell axis, not sloping forward (prosocline) or backwards (opisthocline).
Gastropod Outer lip The lip of the aperture of a gastropod shell furthest from the shell axis. The outer lip itself has inner and outer surfaces.
Gastropod Papillate Teat-like
Gastropod Paratype A specimen other than the holotype which was seen and designated by the author at the time of the original description of a species or subspecies.
Gastropod Parietal Pertaining to the parietal region.
Gastropod Parietal shield A calloused area found in some gastropod shells, covering the parietal wall.
Gastropod Parietal wall the region of a gastropod shell that extends from the columella around the top of the aperture to the outer lip.
Gastropod Pelagic Living on the surface of the sea or in the water column; opposite to benthic.
Gastropod Penultimate Second last.
Gastropod Periostracum Outer layers of horny material covering the calcareous shell. May be thin and transparent or thick, fibrous or hairy.
Gastropod Periphery The part of a gastropod shell farthest from the axis of coiling.
Gastropod Peristome The lips or margin of the aperture of a gastropod shell.
Gastropod Plait Spiral fold or ridge on the columella. Plica.
Gastropod Planispiral Coiled in a single plane.
Gastropod Planktonic Drifting or weakly swimming in the ocean.
Gastropod Planktotrophic Refers to planktonic larval development where the larvae feeds on micro-organisms and development time in the plankton is long.
Gastropod Plica (pl. plicae). A columellar fold.
Gastropod Plicate Folded or twisted; having plicae.
Gastropod Porcellaineous Polished; surface and texture as in porcelain.
Gastropod Posterior The tail end of an animal; in a gastropod shell, towards the apex .
Gastropod Posterior canal Anal canal.
Gastropod Preoccupied refers to a name which cannot because it was used for another taxon, or was not validly introduced..
Gastropod Primary Of the first order; most dominant or conspicuous.
Gastropod Proboscis An extensible snout, usually with the mouth at its end.
Gastropod Produced Drawn out; elongated; extended.
Gastropod Prosocline Referring to the outer lip of a gastropod shell, leaning forward in relation to the direction of growth.
Gastropod Protoconch Embryonic shell, present in the adult as the apical or nuclear whorls and often demarcated from the teleoconch whorls by a change of sculpture.
Gastropod Punctate Minutely pitted.
Gastropod Pustulose With pimple-like or blister-like swellings
Gastropod Recurved With the end bent away from the shell axis.
Gastropod Reflected Turned outwards and backwards.
Gastropod Reticulate Lines, riblets, threads or grooves crossing each other like a net.
Gastropod Rib An elongate sculptural element of a shell, raised above the surrounding surface. A fine rib is a riblet, and a very fine rib is a thread.
Gastropod Riblet A small rib, but coarser than a thread.
Gastropod Rugose Rough; covered with wrinkles, folds or creases.
Gastropod Scabrous Covered with scales
Gastropod Scale Thin plate-like structures, more or less parallel to the shell surface, as in fish scales.
Gastropod Secondary Of the second order; less dominant or conspicuous than primary structures.
Gastropod Serrate Notched or toothed at the edge like a saw.
Gastropod Shoulder The region of each whorl of a gastropod shell showing a sharper angulation or greater convexity than the rest of the whorl.
Gastropod Shouldered Having a shoulder.
Gastropod Sinistral Coiled in a left-handed spiral. i.e. anticlockwise when viewed from the apex.
Gastropod Sinuate Curved in and out; wavy; tortuous.
Gastropod Sinus A deep indentation or cavity
Gastropod Siphonal canal An open or closed tubular shell extension at the anterior end of a shell through which the siphon is extended. Same as anterior canal.
Gastropod Spatula Spoon-shaped area at the centre of the interior of a limpet shell.
Gastropod Spicule A small, slender, needle-like spine.
Gastropod Spinose Bearing many spines.
Gastropod Spiral sculpture Sculpture following the helical growth of a gastropod shell.
Gastropod Spire All whorls of a spiral shell exclusive of the body whorl.
Gastropod Stria (Pl. striae). Narrow and shallow incised groove.
Gastropod Striate Marked with striae.
Gastropod Subfossil A fossil that is younger than what would be considered typical fossil age. i.e. preserved since about 10,000 years ago, but not strictly recent or present day.
Gastropod Sublittoral Below low tide level.
Gastropod Subspecies A geographically defined group of populations comprising individuals which possess characteristics distinguishing them from other such subdivisions of the species.
Gastropod Substrate The material of the sea bed.
Gastropod Subsutural Below (i.e. anterior to) the suture.
Gastropod Suture The continuous spiral line of junction of whorls of a gastropod shell.
Gastropod Sympatric ???????
Gastropod Synonym Each of two or more different names for the same species or other taxon.
Gastropod Syntype One of several type specimens where none has been designated as a holotype.
Gastropod Teleoconch All the whorls of a gastropod shell after the protoconch.
Gastropod Tertiary Of the third order; generally used for minor sculptural elements.
Gastropod Thread A very fine sculptural element of a shell, raised above the surrounding surface. Finer than a rib.
Gastropod Top In a gastropod shell, the posterior end.
Gastropod Truncate Cut off at the end, blunt.
Gastropod Turreted With the spire whorls like a succession of turrets, emerging one above the other.
Gastropod Type locality Locality at which the type specimen was collected.
Gastropod Umbilicus Cavity or hollow around the axis of a gastropod shell, formed when the inner walls of successive whorls do not meet.
Gastropod Varical Pertaining to a varix.
Gastropod Varix (Pl. varices). A thickened axial ridge in a gastropod shell, formed by thickening of the outer lip at a resting stage in the growth of the shell.
Gastropod Ventral Of, pertaining to, or situated on, the lower side of a dorsiventral organism; on the apertural surface of a gastropod shell. Opposite to dorsal.
Gastropod Whorl A single, complete turn of 360º in the spiral growth of a gastropod shell.
Lobster Abdomen The section commonly referred to as the “tail”.
Lobster Antennae Tactile organs, having a sense of touch.
Lobster Antennules Chemosensors, having a sense of smell – with a function similar to a human nose.
Lobster Carapace The outer shell of the cephalothrax
Lobster Cephalothorax Contains the head and thorax sections together they are commonly called the “body”
Lobster Chelipod (crusher claw) The larger of the claws, with a rounded surface suitable for crushing prey such as shellfish.
Lobster Chelipod (ripper or pincher claw) The smaller of the claws, which is more pointed and sharp, is used for tearing food apart.
Lobster Eye Compound eyes provide sense of sight
Lobster Mandible Jawlike structure for crushing and ingesting food
Lobster Maxillipeds The mouthparts of the lobster, flat platelike parts used to pass food to the mandible
Lobster Pereiopods (walking legs) The two sets of walking legs immediately behind the claws are also used for catching and eating food and have many “taste” sensors; the last two sets of legs are used primarily for walking.
Lobster Pleopods Commonly known as “swimmerets” with tiny hairs. In females the hairs are somewhat longer and are the attachment point for eggs.
Lobster Telson The central tail fin
Lobster Uropods The outer pairs of tail fins
Mammals Abdomen The ventral part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis.
Mammals Altricial Mammals that are born in relatively undeveloped condition (eyes closed and with minimal fur) and require prolonged parental care—as opposed to precocial.
Mammals Alveolar Of or pertaining to an alveolus (plural, alveoli), a small cavity or pit, as a socket for a tooth. Alveolar length of a tooth
Mammals Angular process The projection at the posterior, ventral end of the mammalian dentary. See "dentary".
Mammals Annulation A circular or ringlike formation, as of the dermal scales on the tail of a mammal where one ring of scales that extends entirely around the tail is succeeded, posteriorly, by other rings.
Mammals Arboreal Inhabiting or frequenting trees—contrasted with fossorial, aquatic, and cursorial.
Mammals Auditory bulla(plural, auditory bullae) A hollow, bony prominence of rounded form (in most mammals formed by the tympanic bone) partly enclosing structures of the middle and inner ear.
Mammals Basal length Distance on skull from the anteriormost inferior border of the foramen magnum to a line connecting the anteriormost parts of the premaxillary bones.
Mammals Basilar length Distance on skull from the anteriormost inferior border of the foramen magnum to a line connecting the posteriormost margins of the alveoli of the first upper incisors.
Mammals Bead A salient, rounded cordlike projecting ridge of bone, as in certain rodents where the superior border of the orbit is beaded.
Mammals Braincase The part of the skull enclosing the brain.
Mammals Bunodont dentition Referring to the cusp type of molars and/or premolars: cusps are low and rounded. The figure shows upper cheekteeth of a young domestic pig; some bunodontdentition, such as human teeth, are simpler; others are more complex.
Mammals Calcar In bats a process connected with the calcaneum (heel bone) and extending into the uropatagium near its edge, helping to support the uropatagium (the fold of skin that extends between the leg and tail). A keeled calcar is one with a definite flap of membrane posterior to the calcar extending beyond the general margin of the uropatagium.
Mammals Cancellous Having a spongy or porous structure.
Mammals Canine Of, pertaining to, or designating the tooth next to the incisors in mammals. Of or pertaining to dogs or to the family Canidae.
Mammals Carnivore An animal that preys on other animals; an animal that eats the flesh of other animals; especially any mammal of the Order Carnivora.
Mammals Cheek teeth
Mammals Conch(plural, conchs) The external ear of a mammal; sometimes the spelling is concha (plural, conchae); the origin of both spellings is conch or konch, originally a bivalve shell of a marine mollusk.
Mammals Condylar (condyloid, articular) process. On a mandible, the process ending in the articular condyle. See "dentary".
Mammals Condylobasal length Least distance on skull from a line connecting the posteriormost projections of the exoccipital condyles to a line connecting the anteriormost projections of the premaxillary bones.
Mammals Coronoid process The upward projecting process of the posterior part of the mandible, giving attachment on its outward side to the masseter muscle and on its inner side to the temporal muscle. See "dentary".
Mammals Dental formula(plural, formulae) A brief method for expressing the number and kind of teeth of mammals. The abbreviations i. (incisor), c. (canine), p. Or pm. (premolar), and m. (molar) indicate the kinds in the permanent dentition, and the number in each jaw is written like a fraction, the figures above the horizontal line showing the number in the upper jaw, and those below, the number in the lower jaw. For deciduous teeth, the abbreviation is preceded by "d".
Mammals Dentary A tooth
Mammals Dentine A calcareous material, harder and denser than bone, which composes the principal mass of a tooth.
Mammals Dentition The teeth, considered collectively, of an animal.
Mammals Deuterocone One of the cusps of a premolar tooth of a mammal corresponding in position (anteromedial) to the protocone of a true molar.
Mammals Diastema A vacant place or gap between teeth in a jaw.
Mammals Digitigrade. Walking on the toes and distal ends of the metapodials
Mammals Enamel Of teeth, the hardest substance of the mammalian body and forming a thin layer that caps or partly covers a tooth.
Mammals Feces Intestinal excrement, droppings, scat.
Mammals Femur(plural, femora) The proximal bone of the hind limb.
Mammals Foramen magnum The large opening in the back of a skull through which the spinal cord passes to become the medulla oblongata of the brain.
Mammals Forearm The part of the forelimb between the elbow and wrist.
Mammals Fossorial Fitted for digging.
Mammals Frontal Pertaining to or designating the bone (paired) immediately in front of the parietal bone and behind the nasal.
Mammals Gestation period The period of carrying young in the uterus, as applied to placental mammals; the period of pregnancy.
Mammals Guard hairs The stiffer, longer hairs that grow up through the limber, shorter hairs (fur) of a mammal's pelage.
Mammals Habitat The kind of environment in which a species of organism is normally found.
Mammals Hamular process of pterygoid A hooklike process on the pterygoid bone.
Mammals Hibernation Torpidity, especially in winter entered into by some kinds of mammals; the bodily temperature approximates that of the surroundings; the rate of respiration and the heart beat are much slower than in a non
Mammals Horizontal ramus In a lower jaw, the ramus bearing the teeth, and anterior to the vertical ramus.
Mammals Incisive foramen The anterior palatine foramen, which are paired, are in the bony roof of the anterior part of the cavity of the mouth at the juncture of the premaxillary bones and maxillary bones; they transmit nasal branches of palatine arteries and nasopalatine ducts of Jacobson.
Mammals Incisor Pertaining to or designating one of the teeth in front of the canine tooth; those in the upper jaw invariably are in the premaxillary bone.
Mammals Infraorbital foramen or canal A hole or passageway (canal) through the maxillary bone from the face to the orbit. See the image of the bobcat skull; the arrow marked "ifo" points to the infraorbital foramen.
Mammals Inguinal Pertaining to or in the region of the groin.
Mammals Insectivorous Eating insects; preying or feeding on insects.
Mammals Interfemoral membrane In a bat, the fold of skin stretching from hind legs to tail. The uropatagium.
Mammals Interorbital constriction The least distance across the top of the skull between the orbits (eye sockets).
Mammals Interorbital region The region between the eye sockets; the region of the skull between the rostrum and the braincase.
Mammals Interparietal Pertaining to or designating the bone (rarely paired) immediately in front of the supraoccipital bone and between the two parietal bones.
Mammals Litter The two or more young brought forth at one birth by a female mammal.
Mammals Loph A combining form used as the terminal part of certain words and denoting the ridges (or areas) composed of several cusps and styles on the occlusal face of a tooth, as protoloph.
Mammals M2 Designation of the second true molar in the upper jaw of a mammal.
Mammals Mammae(singular, mamma) The glandular organs for secreting milk.
Mammals Mastoid Designating or pertaining to the mastoid bone (paired) or its process. This bone is bounded by the squamosal bone, the exoccipital bone, and the tympanic bone.
Mammals Maxillary breadth Width of skull from some designated place on the lateral face of the right maxillary bone (maxilla) to the corresponding place on the left maxillary bone; in shrews, across the ends of the zygomatic processes of the two maxillary bones.
Mammals Maxillary toothrow The row of teeth in one maxillary bone; in most mammals all the premolars and molars on one side of the upper jaw.
Mammals Metabolic water Water formed as an end product of cellular combustion of foodstuffs in an animal's body.
Mammals Metacarpal Of or pertaining to a metacarpal bone. A bone of the hand or forefoot between the wrist and fingers; when all the digits are present ,there are five more or less elongated metacarpal bones, one at the base of each digit.
Mammals Molar Of or pertaining to a molar tooth. One of the teeth behind the premolar teeth; a molar tooth is not preceded in embryological development by a deciduous (milk) tooth.
Mammals Molt(moult) In a mammal, the act or process of shedding or casting off the hair, or outer layer of skin or horns; most mammals shed the hair once, twice, or three times annually. The cast off covering(obsolete).As a verb: to be shed(intransitive)or to shed(transitive).
Mammals Nasal Of or pertaining to the nose, as a nasal bone (paired) on the dorsal surface of the skull at its anterior end. A nasal bone.
Mammals Nocturnal Active by night (opposed to diurnal).
Mammals Occipitonasal length Least distance between two vertical lines, one touching the posteriormost part of the skull above the foramen magnum (opening for the spinal cord) and the other touching the anteriormost part of the nasal bones or a nasal bone.
Mammals Occlusal Of or pertaining to the grinding or biting (occluding) surface of a tooth.
Mammals Opposable Capable of being placed opposite something else; said of the first toe of an opossum in the sense that it can be placed opposite each of the other toes on that same foot.
Mammals Orbit The cavity in the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated; the eye socket.
Mammals Osseous Composed of, or resembling, bone; bony. Osseous tissue is bony tissue.
Mammals Overhairs The longer hairs of the pelage of a mammal that project above the fur (shorter hairs).
Mammals P3 Designation of the third (next to last) premolar in the upper jaw of a mammal. Capital letters designate teeth in the upper jaw and lowercase letters designate teeth in the lower jaw.
Mammals Palatal Of or pertaining to the palate (as generally used, the bony roof of the mouth made up of two palatine bones, two maxillary bones, and two premaxillary bones).
Mammals Palate The roof of the mouth, consisting of the structures that separate the mouth from the nasal cavity. The bony palate is composed of the following bones: premaxillae, maxillae, and palatines.
Mammals Parietal Pertaining to or designating the parietal bone (paired) roofing the braincase. This bone is behind the frontal bone and in front of the occipital bones.
Mammals Pectoral pertaining to, or situated or occurring in or on, the chest.
Mammals Pencil Tuft of fur or hair, as a black pencil on the end of the tail of a mammal.
Mammals Penicillate Having a pencil, or tuft of longer hair (see above).
Mammals Phalanx(plural, phalanges) A bone, in a finger, distal to the metacarpus or a bone, in a toe, distal to the metatarsus.
Mammals Pinna(plural, pinnae) The projecting part of an ear.
Mammals Plantigrade Walking on the entire sole of the foot, as in humans and bears.
Mammals Postauricular Situated behind the auricle (pinna) of the ear, as a postauricular patch (ordinarily referring to a patch of fur differing in color from surrounding fur).
Mammals Postorbital Situated behind the eye, as postorbital process of the frontal bone or postorbital process of the jugal bone.
Mammals Premaxillary Of or referring to the premaxilla, a bone (paired), in the mammalian skull bearing the incisor teeth of the upper jaw; the premaxilla is situated in front of the maxilla.
Mammals Premolar Designating or pertaining to one of the teeth (a maximum of 4 on each side of upper jaw and lower jaw of placental mammals, or 16 in all) in front of the true molars. When canine teeth are present, premolars are behind these teeth; premolars are preceded by deciduous teeth, and in the upper jaw are confined to the maxillary bone.
Mammals Proximal Being nearer to the midline of the body than the referred structure. Thus the wrist is proximal to the hand, the forearm is proximal to the wrist, the elbow is proximal to the forearm, etc. The opposite of distal.
Mammals Reentrant angle An infold of the enamel layer on the side, front, or back of a cheek
Mammals Rostrum Of a mammalian skull, the part projecting in front of the orbits.
Mammals Rut The breeding period, as in deer.
Mammals Sagittal crest The ridge of bone at the juncture of the two parietal bones resulting from the coalescence of the temporal ridges; in old individuals of many species of mammals, the crest extends from the middle of the lambdoidal crest anteriorly onto the frontal bones and divides there into two temporal ridges, each of which extends anterolaterally on the posterior edge of the postorbital process of the frontal bone.
Mammals Saliva The fluid secreted by the glands discharging into the mouth.
Mammals Subauricular spot A spot, patch of hair, distinctively colored immediately below the ear.
Mammals Supraorbital process of frontal The process of the frontal bone on the top rim of the orbit, as in a rabbit.
Mammals Tarsus The ankle.
Mammals Taxon (plural: taxa) Any group of organisms formally named under the rules of taxonomic nomenclature. ThusHomo sapiensis a taxon that happens to be at the species level. Animalia also is a taxon (at the kingdom level, of course). This differs from rank, which refers to a level of the taxonomic hierarchy (such as genus, order, phylum).
Mammals Temporal ridge(paired) A curved, raised line on the side of the braincase marking the upper limit of attachment of the fascia of the temporal muscle. The temporal ridge is prominent on the parietal bone, frequently extends forward onto the frontal bone, and in some kinds of mammals extends backward onto the interparietal bone. When present, the sagittal crest is formed by the coalescence of the two temporal ridges.
Mammals Terrestrial Inhabiting the land, rather than the water, trees, or air.
Mammals Tibia(plural, tibiae) The inner and usually larger of the two bones of the hind limb (leg) between the knee and the ankle.
Mammals Torpid Having lost most of the power of exertion; dormant. A ground squirrel is torpid when it is hibernating.
Mammals Tricolor Having three colors. Said of hair on back of a mammal when the hair has three bands, each of a different color.
Mammals Type locality The place where a type specimen (holotype) was obtained.
Mammals Underfur The short hair of a mammal; in temperate and boreal climates, the underfur ordinarily is denser, made up of more hairs, than the longer and coarser overhair.
Mammals Underparts The underneath (ventral) side of a mammal (not the back or sides), as of a woods mouse with whiteunderparts.
Mammals Unicuspid A tooth with a single cusp. Usually applied to a set of teeth of shrews, but may be used for any such tooth, such as a canine tooth.
Mammals Upper parts The top (dorsal) surface and all of the sides (not the belly, chest, or throat), as of a woods mouse with reddish
Mammals Uropatagium The interfemoral membrane of a bat; that is to say, the fold of skin that stretches from the hind legs to the tail.
Mammals Zygomatic breadth Greatest distance across zygomatic arches of the cranium at right angles to the long axis of skull.
Mammals Zalambdodont Molars having a lateral, V
Mangroves Abaxial Abaxial means being located on the side away from the axis. The abaxial surface of a leaf is its underside.
Mangroves Abiotic Non-living; part of physical environment.
Mangroves Acuminate Tapering gradually to a protracted point.
Mangroves Acute Terminating in a distinct but not protracted point, the converging edges forming an angle of less than 90 degrees.
Mangroves Adventitious roots Arising in abnormal positions of roots from the shoot system.
Mangroves Aerial root Specialized roots in mangrove plants that are exposed to the air, at least during low tide.
Mangroves Alternate Leaves occurring at different levels successively along a stem.
Mangroves Annual Plant that completes its life cycle from seed to seed in a single year (or season).
Mangroves Anther The portion of a stamen which bears the pollen.
Mangroves Apiculate A short, sharp, flexible point.
Mangroves Aril An appendage growing at or near the hilum of a seed; fleshy thickening of the seed coat (e.g. in Myristicaceae).
Mangroves Aroid Member of the Araceae family.
Mangroves Asexual A sexual orientation characterized by a persistent lack of sexual attraction to any gender.
Mangroves Axil The point of the upper angle formed between the axis of a stem and a leaf (stalk).
Mangroves Axillary Arising from the axil, as in an axillary bud at the end.
Mangroves Axillary spines The axillary spine is a spine that develops in the axil (the angle between the stem and the leaf) of a plant.
Mangroves Bark The bark is the outer covering of the trunk, branches, and roots of trees.
Mangroves Basal Arising from the base of a stem beneath a terminal flower.
Mangroves Beaked Narrowed or prolonged tip.
Mangroves Berry A fleshy fruit developing from a single female reproductive organ may be applied to any fruit which is fleshy or pulpy throughout, i.e. without a stony pit or core.
Mangroves Bifurcate Forked in two.
Mangroves Bipinnate Twice divided compound leaf, with leaflets on opposite sides.
Mangroves Brackish Slightly to saline/ salty but not having the salinity of seawater.
Mangroves Bryophyte Mosses.
Mangroves Buttress root A stout vertically flattened root growing from near the base of the stem.
Mangroves Cable root A slender root which spreads horizontally outwards from the plant.
Mangroves Calyx The calyx is the sepals of a flower.
Mangroves Canopy The uppermost layer of branches and leaves of a single tree or forest.
Mangroves Capsule A capsule is a seed pod that opens when it is dry and the seeds are mature.
Mangroves Carpel A simple pistil or single-celled ovary or seed vessel.
Mangroves Catkin Spikelike flower cluster, sometimes drooping.
Mangroves Circumscissile Splitting or opening along a circumference with the top coming off as a lid.
Mangroves Clump- forming Growing closely together in a compact cluster or group.
Mangroves Columnar trees Trunk of tree is tall and straight.
Mangroves Compound leaf Many leaflets present on either side of the rachis
Mangroves Cone roots A vertical extensions from cable roots
Mangroves Cordate leaf A cordate leaf has a heart shape, with the wide part towards the petiole.
Mangroves Corolla The corolla consists of the petals of a flower.
Mangroves Cosmopolitan Found all over the globe.
Mangroves Cotyledons The seed-leaves or embryonic leaf.
Mangroves Cymes A flat topped inflorescence in which the centre flower opens first.
Mangroves Deciduous Shedding its leaves periodically (e.g. during dry season).
Mangroves Dichotomous Branching that result from division of a growing point into two equal parts, giving repeated forking.
Mangroves Dicotyledons With two cotyledons, i.e. primary leaves of the embryo; includes most seed plants.
Mangroves Dioecious Male and female flowers present in different plants.
Mangroves Domatium Crevice or hollow in some plants, serving as lodging for insects (esp. ants) or mites.
Mangroves Emarginate Notched at the tip or apex.
Mangroves Endemic Endemic plants are native to an area and are only found in that area.
Mangroves Endosperm A tissue containing stored food, surrounding and nourishing the embryo.
Mangroves Ephemeral Temporary, soon disappearing.
Mangroves Epigeal Of or relating to the emergence of cotyledons above the surface of the ground.
Mangroves Epiphyte Growing on another plant (usually an herb growing on a tree), without being rooted in soil.
Mangroves Erect Vertical or upright.
Mangroves Estuarine Of, relating to, or found in an estuary.
Mangroves Evergreen Not shedding its leaves.
Mangroves Fissured Deeply grooved.
Mangroves Fissured bark Bark that splits or cracks.
Mangroves Flaky bark Barks that falls of in flakes or thin sheets.
Mangroves Flanged A projecting rim or edge.
Mangroves Fluted trunk Spreading outward towards the bottom.
Mangroves Foliaceous Like a leaf in shape.
Mangroves Frond Palm leaf.
Mangroves Gall Abnormal outgrowth from plant leaf (or stem) caused by the presence of young insects (e.g. gall wasps).
Mangroves Germination Germination is the beginning of growth of a plant from its seed.
Mangroves Gland An appendage or other structure on a plant which secretes sticky or oily substances.
Mangroves Glossy Smooth and shining.
Mangroves Gregarious Large numbers of the same species occurring together at a single site (not necessarily compact).
Mangroves Halophyte Plant that only occurs in salty, saline areas.
Mangroves Hemi- parasite A plant that partially parasites on a host, but supplements this with its own (often feeble) photosynthesis; can exist without a host.
Mangroves Hilum Scar left at former point of attachment.
Mangroves Holotype A single type specimen upon which the description and name of a new species is based.
Mangroves Hybrid Individual produced as a result of cross between two different species.
Mangroves Hypocotyl Portion of the embryonic stem below the cotyledons (i.e. the primary leaves of the embryo).
Mangroves Hypogeal Emergence of cotyledons below the surface of the ground.
Mangroves Inflorescence Arrangement of flowers or flower cluster.
Mangroves Internodes The part between two nodes or joints.
Mangroves Keeled A prominent, longitudinal ridge.
Mangroves Knee roots Above ground roots shaped like a knee.
Mangroves Lagoon Body of seawater (often shallow) that is (almost) disconnected from the sea.
Mangroves Latex A thick, milky juice.
Mangroves Leaflet A division of a compound (i.e. subdivided) leaf.
Mangroves Lenticel A special pore in the bark of trees and shrubs allows air pass in to inner tissues often with characteristic shape, colour and size.
Mangroves Liana A woody climbing plant, usually of (semi) tropics.
Mangroves Ligule A tongue- shaped or strap- shaped organ.
Mangroves Littoral The intertidal zone.
Mangroves Margin The edge of a leaf.
Mangroves Midrib The central rib or vein of a leaf.
Mangroves Monocotyledons With one cotyledon, i.e. primary leaf of the embryo; includes groups such as grasses, sedges, orchids and lilies.
Mangroves Mucronate Leaf apex usually broad, terminated by a short stiff point called mucro.
Mangroves Nerve A prominent, simple vein or rib of a leaf.
Mangroves Nodes Knob or joint of a stem at which leaves arise.
Mangroves Oblong Elongated, two or four times longer than broad.
Mangroves Obovate Inversely egg- shaped and ends with the broader region.
Mangroves Obovoid Pear shaped.
Mangroves Obtuse Blunt at the end, forming greater than right angle.
Mangroves Opposite Two leaves borne on either side of a branch at a single node.
Mangroves Palm-like A plant whose leaf is divided into several leaflets which arise from the same point.
Mangroves Panicle An inflorescence divided into branches, compound.
Mangroves Pantropical Occurring in all of the tropical regions of the world.
Mangroves Peltate A leaf with the stalk usually attached centrally beneath the leaf blade.
Mangroves Pencil roots A vertical extension from cable roots.
Mangroves Perennial Plant which lives for more than one year.
Mangroves Phenology Occurrence of flowering and fruiting events.
Mangroves Pimple A projections on the surface of the trunk.
Mangroves Pinnate A compound leaf with leaves arranged on opposite sides of an elongated axis.
Mangroves Pitcher Plant a member of the Nepenthaceae family, characteristically with leaf-ends that are modified into vessels that contain rain water and enzymes and serve to trap insects.
Mangroves Pneumatophore A respiratory root which rises above the soil surface or spongy/ corky aerial roots arising from cable roots, variable in shape including peg, conical, pencil and knee.
Mangroves Pod A dry fruit that opens at maturity, e.g. of legumes (Legiminosae).
Mangroves Pollen Pollen is the male reproductive cell of flowering plants and cone-bearing plants.
Mangroves Pollination Pollination is the process in which the male's pollen fertilizes the female's ovule and creates a seed.
Mangroves Prop roots Aerial roots that form on the stem above ground, also called stilt roots.
Mangroves Propagule A structure, such as seed or spore, which gives rise to a new plant.
Mangroves Pubescent Softly hairy, covered with short, soft fine hairs.
Mangroves Raceme An unbranched, elongated flower cluster with flowers maturing from the bottom towards top.
Mangroves Rattan A climbing palm.
Mangroves Resilience The ability of a substance or object to spring back into shape.
Mangroves Reticulate Like a net.
Mangroves Revolute Rolled downwards or to the lower side.
Mangroves Rhizome An underground horizontal stem.
Mangroves Riparian Along the river or stream.
Mangroves River banks A bank generally refers to the land alongside a body of water.
Mangroves Rosette A radiating cluster of leaves as in a dandelion.
Mangroves Scales Flat, plate-like external structure, formed from the epidermis often visible only if viewed under magnification.
Mangroves Scandent Climbing, without use of tendrils, hooks, etc.
Mangroves Secondary leaflets A (further) division of a leaflet (see above)
Mangroves Sedge Grass-like herb of the Cyperaceaefamily
Mangroves Sepal Small leaves located directly under a flower they are the outermost part of a flower. Collectively, the sepals are called the calyx.
Mangroves Sessile Immovable.
Mangroves Sexual Sexual dimorphism is characteristic of having two different forms, one for the males and another for the females of a species.
Mangroves Sheath Organ that (partially) surrounds another organ (e.g. a leaf base).
Mangroves Shrub-like Smaller plants with main stems divided into many sub stems.
Mangroves Sickle-shaped Shaped like a sickle, a curved knife
Mangroves Simple leaf Single, undivided piece, applied to leaves.
Mangroves Sinuous Curving like a meandering stream.
Mangroves Sorus Cluster of sporangia on the surface of a fern leaf (plural = sori).
Mangroves Spat(h)ulate Leaf shaped like a spatula.
Mangroves Spike An unbranched, elongated flower cluster with (sub-) sessile flowers, maturing from the bottom upwards.
Mangroves Spikelet A secondary spike.
Mangroves Sporangium Spore-bearing case or sac (of fern) (plural = sporangia).
Mangroves Spore Reproductive cell of a fern.
Mangroves Spur Small, hook-like appendage.
Mangroves Spurred Bearing of small, hook-like appendage.
Mangroves Stalk Petiole, peduncle or stem.
Mangroves Stamen The male organ of the flower consisting of the pollen- bearing anther and its stalk.
Mangroves Standard The upper and usually largest petal of a Papillionaceae flower.
Mangroves Sterile Infertile, non-reproductive, not able to reproduce stigma.
Mangroves Stilt root A root arising from the stem some distance above the ground and affording.
Mangroves Stolon Creeping plant’s stem or runner, capable of developing rootlets and stem, and ultimately developing new individuals.
Mangroves Succulent Plant with juicy, thick leaves and thickened stems; often occurs in dry and desert conditions or physiologically dry conditions such as with high salinity.
Mangroves Suture Line where two parts are joined, and often split apart.
Mangroves Swampy Characteristic of or resembling a swamp.
Mangroves Tendril A slender, twining organ used to grasp support for climbing.
Mangroves Terminal Located at the end, e.g. of a branch or twig.
Mangroves Terrestrial Occurring on land.
Mangroves Thicket A thick clump of shrubs, often impenetrable.
Mangroves Thyrse Having a number of simple dichasial cymes arranged in a recemose manner on an elongated peduncle.
Mangroves Tree Higher woody plant, usually with one major trunk.
Mangroves Umbel An inflorescence consisting of a number of flower stalks or pedicels.
Mangroves Tussock Grasses or sedges growing closely together in a compact cushion.
Mangroves Vegetative The vegetative state is the stage in a flowering plant's life cycle before the appearance of its fruiting structures.
Mangroves Vein A vascular bundle, usually visible externally, e.g. on the leaf surface.
Mangroves Vine forest Certain type of evergreen, tropical forest that is particularly abundant in climbers (e.g. in parts of Queensland, Australia).
Mangroves Viviparous Sprouting on the parent plant (e.g. many Rhizophoraceae).
Mangroves Wetland An area that is either permanently, periodically or occasionally covered with fresh, brackish or saline water.
Mangroves Whorls (flowers) A ring-like arrangement of flowers from a common point or node.
Mangroves Whorls (leaves) A ring-like arrangement of leaves from a common point or node.
Mangroves Wing Thin, flat margin bordering the fruit.
Mangroves Zonation Distribution in zones or regions of definite character.
Mangroves Zygomorphic Having only one plane of symmetry, usually the vertical plane, referring to a flower, calyx or corolla.
Opisthobranchia Aeolid A nudibranch belonging to the major group (suborder) Aeolidina.
Opisthobranchia Annulate A shape that consists of rings or ring
Opisthobranchia Anterior Toward the front of the body.
Opisthobranchia Aperture The single large terminal orifice of a shell through which the head foot is extruded.
Opisthobranchia Apertural sinus Recurved notch in margin of aperture of a shell.
Opisthobranchia Apex Narrow first formed part of shell, typically bearing a protoconch (the tip of the spire).
Opisthobranchia Apical Relating to the tip or apex.
Opisthobranchia Autotomy A defensive behaviour in which an animal deliberately casts off part of its body (usually the mantle or cerata).
Opisthobranchia Axial Describes direction of shell sculpture that is more or less parallel to the coiling axis.
Opisthobranchia Benthic Refers to an organism living on or in the substrate.
Opisthobranchia Bifid Divided by a deep cleft into two parts.
Opisthobranchia Bipinnate With small side branches arising on two sides of the main stem or axis (refers to the gill).
Opisthobranchia Bivalves An exclusively aquatic class of molluscs that has two shells that are typically symmetrical along the hinge line and feed by siphoning and filtering particles from the water.
Opisthobranchia Body whorl One complete spiral turn of a univalve shell.
Opisthobranchia Branchial pocket A cavity in the posterior midline of a dorid’s body into which the gills can be retracted.
Opisthobranchia Buccal Referring to the mouth or mouth cavity.
Opisthobranchia Carnivorous Literally a meat
Opisthobranchia Caryophyllidia Specialised spiculose tubercles on the mantle surface of some cryptobranchdorids.
Opisthobranchia Cerata (singular ceras) Finger
Opisthobranchia Caruncle Elevated ridge or lobe with presumed sensory function.
Opisthobranchia Caudal Relating to the tail.
Opisthobranchia Chloroplasts The plastid within a plant cell that contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis.
Opisthobranchia Cilia Fine hair
Opisthobranchia Clavus The distal portion of the rhinophore above the stalk. It is often expanded and ornamented with lamellae or papillae.
Opisthobranchia Club See clavus.
Opisthobranchia Cnidosac A small cavity at the apex of each ceras of aeolids in which unexploded nematocysts aquired from the cnidarian food are stored.
Opisthobranchia Columella The pillar forming the central axis of the shell around which the whorls spiral of a shell.
Opisthobranchia Columellar lip Inner lip of aperture of a shell.
Opisthobranchia Crenulate Finely notched; regularly indented.
Opisthobranchia Cryptic Body camouflaged to resemble part of the microhabitat; or possessing secretive behaviour.
Opisthobranchia Cryptobranch gill Gills of doridnudibranchs which can be retracted completely into a branchial pocket below the notum.
Opisthobranchia Distal That section of an organ or appendage which is most remote from the point of attachment to the body.
Opisthobranchia Digestive diverticulum A branch of the digestive gland within a ceras.
Opisthobranchia Dorid Nudibranchs with a circle of gills surrounding the anus in the midline towards the rear of the body, belonging to the major group (suborder) Doridina.
Opisthobranchia Dorsal The top surface of the animal.
Opisthobranchia Dorsum (= notum) The exposed back or top surface of a nudibranch mantle.
Opisthobranchia Endemic A species that is restricted to one or few localities in its distribution.
Opisthobranchia Epiphytic Referring to organisms living on the surface of a plant.
Opisthobranchia Filament A slender thread
Opisthobranchia Foot The large muscle mass on which gastropods move.
Opisthobranchia Fusiform Spindle shaped.
Opisthobranchia Gill (= branchia) The respiratory organ. Either in the form of single leaflets (hence pinnate) or with side branches (bipinnate or tripinnate).
Opisthobranchia Gizzard A modified region of the gut used for masticating food.
Opisthobranchia Habitat The natural environment in which an organism lives.
Opisthobranchia Herbivorous Feeding on plant material (e.g. Seaweed, encrusting microalgae).
Opisthobranchia Hermaphrodite Bisexual; an individual possessing functional male and female reproductive organs and capable of producing both sperm and eggs.
Opisthobranchia Hyponotum The under surface of the mantle.
Opisthobranchia In situ Refers to the natural environment of an animal.
Opisthobranchia Incised A deep etching or mark on the shell surface.
Opisthobranchia Infaunal Living within the substrate.
Opisthobranchia Infrapallial lobe Posterior fold of body enclosing shell of cephalaspideans.
Opisthobranchia Inner lip Inner margin of aperture overlying columellar of a shell.
Opisthobranchia Intertidal The area of foreshore that lies between high tide (when it is covered by water) and low tide (when it is exposed to the air).
Opisthobranchia Intraspecific variation Refers to natural variation in one or more charcters between individuals of the same species.
Opisthobranchia Involute Refers to the spire of the shell of the family Bullidae, which is sunk below the level of the apex.
Opisthobranchia Jaws Thickened, horny plates within the buccal cavity.
Opisthobranchia Lamellate (= perfoliate) Rhinophores bearing plates on the posterior face of the stalk or clavus.
Opisthobranchia Lappets Muscular plates or extensions associated with the mouth.
Opisthobranchia Last whorl The last most recently formed whorl of gastropod shell.
Opisthobranchia Lateral Relating to the side.
Opisthobranchia Larvae (singular: lava) The juvenile stage of an animal prior to its undergoing metamorphosis into an adult. Its form can be completely different to the adult.
Opisthobranchia Lecithotrophic Relates to the type of development in which larvae utilise only the reserves of yolk in the egg to nourish themselves.
Opisthobranchia Mantle The organ secreting the shell of molluscs. It develops into the layer that covers the body in opisthobranchs without a shell.
Opisthobranchia Margin The outer edge of the mantle.
Opisthobranchia Medial Towards the middle or midline.
Opisthobranchia Metamorphosis A biological process whereby an animal develops by undergoing a physical and abrupt change in form often accompanied by a change in habitat and behaviour.
Opisthobranchia Metapodium – Posterior extension of the mantle.
Opisthobranchia Nekton Permanently floating at the surface of the ocean.
Opisthobranchia Nematocyst The stinging organ of the Cnidaria (a microscopic capsule with a coiled thread that rapidly unwinds on discharge). Present in hydroids, sea anemones, corals, etc. Aeolidnudibranchs separate the nematocysts from the remainder of the hydroid tissues and pass them, unexpoded, through the digestive diverticulum in the cerata to the cnidosac at the tip where they are used for the aeolid’s own defense.
Opisthobranchia Nocturnal Active at night.
Opisthobranchia Notum (= dorsum) The exposed back or top surface of a nudibranch mantle.
Opisthobranchia Nudibranch Technically a member of the order Nudibranchia of the subclass Opisthobranchia (sea slugs). Equivalent of Opisthobranch in much popular literature.
Opisthobranchia Operculum A horny or calciferous plate that partially or completely closes the aperture
Opisthobranchia On retraction into the shell.
Opisthobranchia Opisthobranch Technically a member of the subclass Gastropoda (includes bubble snails, sea hares, sea butterflies, caddis slugs, sap
Opisthobranchia Oral tentacle Tentacle (or flap) around the mouth; used for food location and recognition.
Opisthobranchia Oral veil A membranous extension of the head above the mouth.
Opisthobranchia Outer lip Outer edge of aperture of a shell.
Opisthobranchia Palmate Having a shape in the likeness of a hand with the fingers extended.
Opisthobranchia Papilla (plural papillae) A small, delicate, finger
Opisthobranchia Parapodia Flap
Opisthobranchia Pelagic Passively drifting or floating at the sea surface; drifting with currents or winds.
Opisthobranchia Pericardium Sac
Opisthobranchia Periostracum The horny outermost layer of gastropod and bivalve shells.
Opisthobranchia Phanerobranch gill Gills of doridnudibranchs that cannot be withdrawn into a branchial pocket beneath the notum. They can only be contracted into a tight group above the notum.
Opisthobranchia Pinnate Bearing side branches; branched as to resemble a feather.
Opisthobranchia Planktotrophic Relates to the type of development in which larvae actively feed on micro
Opisthobranchia Plicate Folded.
Opisthobranchia Posterior Towards the rear of the body.
Opisthobranchia Propodial Located at the anterior part of the foot.
Opisthobranchia Protoconch Larval shell of a gastropod. Smallest spiral tip of a shell.
Opisthobranchia Pustule (= tubercle) A low, conical, rounded or uneven swelling on the notum.
Opisthobranchia Radula A flexible, cuticularised feeding organ contained within the buccal cavity; bears numerous minute teeth.
Opisthobranchia Respiration Exchange of gases between the environment and the organism.
Opisthobranchia Reticulum Network; any reticulated system or structure.
Opisthobranchia Rhinophore Sensory tentacle on the head, or anterior section of the mantle, of opisthobranchs.
Opisthobranchia Rhinophoral pocket The cavity into which the rhinophore of a doridnudibranch can be withdrawn.
Opisthobranchia Rhinophoral sheath Upstanding flange from the antero
Opisthobranchia Sculpture Surface structure and ornamentation on shell surface.
Opisthobranchia Siphon Elongation of mantle edge to form a tube for water flow.
Opisthobranchia Shell The molluscan shell is a calcareous exoskeleton which encloses, supports and protects the soft parts of the animal. It is formed, repaired and maintained by the mantle. In opisthobranchs it may be reduced, internal or completely lost in the adult.
Opisthobranchia Spawn Mass of eggs embedded in transparent jelly.
Opisthobranchia Spicule A minute rod or star
Opisthobranchia Spire The visible part of all the whorls except the last (shell body) whorl.
Opisthobranchia Striate Marked with fine grooves.
Opisthobranchia Subapical Section below the apex or tip.
Opisthobranchia Substrate The type of sea floor on which a benthic organism lives and grows.
Opisthobranchia Symbiosis Describes a close and often long term interaction between different species usually where both organisms benefit.
Opisthobranchia Tentacle Projecting sensory appendage associated with the head or mouth.
Opisthobranchia Tripinnate With small side branches arising from three sides of the main stem or axis (refers to the gill).
Opisthobranchia Truncate shortened abruptly, squared off.
Opisthobranchia Uniseriate In relation to the arrangement of teeth in the radula where there is a single tooth in each row.
Opisthobranchia Ventral The underside of the animal.
Opisthobranchia Viscera The soft interior organs of the body.
Opisthobranchia Whorl One complete spiral turn of a univalve shell.
Opisthobranchia Zooxanthellae Symbiotic dinoflagellates in many
Polychaeta Abdomen body region posterior to the thorax, sometimes followed by a tail.
Polychaeta Abyssal oceanic waters between depths of 4000 m and 6000 m.
Polychaeta Achaetigerous seeachaetous.
Polychaeta Achaetous without chaetae.
Polychaeta Acicula, aciculae a stout supportive chaeta found internally in projecting parapodial rami.
Polychaeta Acicular chaeta stout, projecting chaeta.
Polychaeta Acicular muscle see oblique muscle.
Polychaeta Acoelomate pertaining to animals lacking a coelom.
Polychaeta Aileron accessory jaw plate in glyceridae.
Polychaeta Anal cirrus, anal cirri see pygidial cirrus
Polychaeta Anal plaque depressed (or sunken) plate-like pygidium of some maldanids and other polychaetes.
Polychaeta Annulated ringed or marked with grooves delineating segments.
Polychaeta Antenna, antennae sensory projection arising from the dorsal, lateral or frontal surface of the prostomium.
Polychaeta Antennular auricle = auricule.
Polychaeta Antennular membrane see cephalic veil.
Polychaeta Anterior gut see foregut.
Polychaeta Apical tooth see primary tooth.
Polychaeta Apodous segments without parapodia.
Polychaeta Apomorphy an advanced or derived feature; compare plesiomorphy.
Polychaeta Arborescent branching like a tree.
Polychaeta Arenicoliform body forms that are swollen anteriorly and tapered posteriorly.
Polychaeta Arista, aristae fine hair-like or bristle-like structure.
Polychaeta Aristate chaeta simple chaeta with smooth shaft and a tuft of hairs or a single spine distally.
Polychaeta Article demarcated sections of chaetae or cirri separated by joints.
Polychaeta Articulate jointed, as in antennae, tentacular cirri, palps and dorsal cirri.
Polychaeta Asetigerous seeachaetigerous.
Polychaeta Atoke non-sexual, unmodified state of an individual in some polychaete groups; pertaining to species which undergo epitoky.
Polychaeta Auricule paired ear-shaped processes at the base of an antenna (ceratophore) characteristic of some sigalionids.
Polychaeta Autapomorphy a derived character unique to a particular taxon.
Polychaeta Avicular beaked; shaped like a bird’s head.
Polychaeta Axial pertaining to, or situated on the axis.
Polychaeta Basal lappet = auricule.
Polychaeta Benthic pertaining to the sea floor.
Polychaeta Benthonic pertaining to the benthon or community of organisms that inhabit the sea floor.
Polychaeta Biarticulate with two joints; pertaining to antennae, tentacular cirri, palps and dorsal cirri.
Polychaeta Bidentate chaeta chaeta with two teeth distally.
Polychaeta Bifid distally split in two; usually pertaining to chaetae.
Polychaeta Bifurcate chaeta simple chaeta with two prongs.
Polychaeta Bilabiate with two lips, usually about parapodial lobes.
Polychaeta Bilimbate chaeta simple chaeta with two wings; see limbate.
Polychaeta Bipectinate branching like a feather from a central axis; similar to pinnate, but branches coarser.
Polychaeta Bipinnate a structure that is pinnate for both its primary and secondary divisions; see pinnate.
Polychaeta Biramousparapodium parapodium with two branches, a notopodium and a neuropodium.
Polychaeta Blade a distal, flattened portion of a compound or simple chaeta.
Polychaeta Boss small projection or knob-like process in compound and simple chaetae.
Polychaeta Brain ganglionic mass situated at least in part in the prostomium.
Polychaeta Branchia, branchiae extension of the body wall with a loop of the vascular system; usually well equipped with capillary blood-vessels.
Polychaeta Branchial crown seeradiolar crown.
Polychaeta Branchiole seeradiole.
Polychaeta Bristle see chaeta.
Polychaeta Brush-tipped chaeta seepenicillate chaeta.
Polychaeta Buccal cavity mouth cavity.
Polychaeta Buccal cirri cirri in or around the mouth; sensory function rather than feeding (cf. Buccal tentacles).
Polychaeta Buccal organ anterior part of alimentary canal derived from larval stomodaeum, comprising a complex set of folds, musculature and glands; see pharynx, proboscis; see also ventral buccal organ.
Polychaeta Buccal tentacles elongate, grooved, usually ciliated appendages in or around the mouth; palpal derivatives.
Polychaeta Bulbus knob-like structure swollen in appearance.
Polychaeta Caecum, caeca blind sac arising from the alimentary canal; applied also to other organ systems, such as nephridia.
Polychaeta Calicinate like the calyx of a flower.
Polychaeta Camerate divided into chambers.
Polychaeta Canaliculate with a (fine) canal or groove.
Polychaeta Capillary chaeta slender, often long, chaeta tapering to a fine point.
Polychaeta Capillary, capillaries see capillary chaeta.
Polychaeta Caruncle projection from the posterior end of the prostomium carrying nuchal organs.
Polychaeta Cauda seepygidium.
Polychaeta Caudad towards the tail.
Polychaeta Caudal plaque flattenedpygidium.
Polychaeta Cephalad towards the head.
Polychaeta Cephalic cage structure formed from long, forwardly directed chaetae more or less enclosing the head.
Polychaeta Cephalic keel median ridge on the prostomium or head, as in some maldanidae.
Polychaeta Cephalic peaks seeprostomial peaks.
Polychaeta Cephalic plaque see cephalic plate.
Polychaeta Cephalic plate plate-likeantero-dorsal surface of the head region in some maldanidae and pectinariidae.
Polychaeta Cephalic rim flange encircling the head in some polychaetes.
Polychaeta Cephalic veil hood-like membrane between the paleae and the buccal tentacles in pectinariidae. See also tentacular membrane.
Polychaeta Cephalisation incorporation of anterior, usually modified cephalised segments, with the head (prostomium/peristomium).
Polychaeta Cephalon see head.
Polychaeta Ceratophore basal part of an antenna.
Polychaeta Ceratostyle distal part of an antenna.
Polychaeta Chaeta, chaetae achitinous bristle protruding from a pocket in the body wall.
Polychaeta Chaetal gland (= chaetal sac) a series of follicles in the parapodium that secrete the support rod, the hook in use, and a varying number of replacement hooks.
Polychaeta Chaetal inversion presence of uncini on the notopodia rather than the more usual position on the neuropodia.
Polychaeta Chaetiger segment bearing chaetae.
Polychaeta Chaetigerous lobe that projection or part of the notopodium or neuropodium which bears the chaetae.
Polychaeta Chaetoblast cell which forms, together with follicle cell, a chaeta.
Polychaeta Chevron v-shapedchitinised jaw piece at the base of the eversible pharynx in some goniadidae.
Polychaeta Chromaphil gland seechromatophil gland.
Polychaeta Chromatophil gland densely staining gland in the ventral pinnule oftomopteris; see also rosette gland.
Polychaeta Chromatophore special cell or group of cells carrying pigment.
Polychaeta Ciliophore distinct area or epidermal patch covered with cilia.
Polychaeta Circular muscle muscle layer encircling the body between the epidermis and longitudinal muscle layer.
Polychaeta Circumoesophageal connective tracts of nervous tissue passing down from the brain on either side of the foregut and connecting to the ventral nerve cord.
Polychaeta Circumoral tentacles see tentacles.
Polychaeta Cirriform slender and cylindrical.
Polychaeta Cirrophore basal projection on which a cirrus is mounted.
Polychaeta Cirrostyle distal part of a cirrus or tentacle.
Polychaeta Cirrus, cirri sensory appendage; usually slender and cylindrical.
Polychaeta Clade a complete set of taxa with a common ancestor.
Polychaeta Cladistics classification of taxa based on lines of evolutionary descent, and, in principle, recognising only clades.
Polychaeta Clavate club-shaped.
Polychaeta Coelom, coelomate body cavity with peritoneal lining; formed in embryonic mesoderm; characteristic of almost all bilateral animals; lined with epithelium termed the peritoneum.
Polychaeta Coelomocytes amoebocytes present in the coelom.
Polychaeta Coelomoduct a tubule derived from coelomic tissue, connecting the coelom with the external environment; often combined with nephridium and termed nephromixia.
Polychaeta Coelomostome funnel at the inner end of a coelomoduct.
Polychaeta Cold seep emergence of fluid from sedimentary rocks under pressure, such as in regions of continental subduction; may comprise hydrocarbons, such as methane, or water, bearing salts such as sulphides.
Polychaeta Collar anterior encircling fold or flap, such as that covering the base of the radiolar crown in sabellidae and serpulidae.
Polychaeta Comb chaeta simple chaeta with a comb-like arrangement of teeth on the distal end; present in some eunicida.
Polychaeta Commensalism an association between two species that live together, which benefits individuals of one species without harming those of the other.
Polychaeta Commissure a transverse band of neural tissue linking paired ventral nerves or longitudinal nerve tracks; one of four main tracts of nervous tissue passing through the brain.
Polychaeta Companion chaetae small, simple chaetae, accompanying, or alternating with larger chaetae, usually hooks of some kind.
Polychaeta Compensatory vessel see contractile vessel.
Polychaeta Composite chaeta see compound chaeta.
Polychaeta Compound chaeta chaeta having a terminal portion which articulates with the shaft.
Polychaeta Compressed flattened in one plane, usually laterally.
Polychaeta Consecutive hermaphroditism change from one sex to another in an individual; may be protandrous, protogynous, or bi-directional.
Polychaeta Copragogue see faecal groove.
Polychaeta Cordate, cordiform heart-shaped.
Polychaeta Cristate bearing a ridge or crest.
Polychaeta Crotchet see hook.
Polychaeta Crown a bilaterally symmetrical branched structure in some polychaetes formed by prostomialpalps.
Polychaeta Ctenidium, ctenidia a finger-shaped or flattened structure presumed to have a respiratory function.
Polychaeta Ctenognath arrangement of complex jaw apparatus in which the jaws comprise relatively large basal maxillae and symmetrically arranged rows of numerous anterior denticles in longitudinal series without carriers.
Polychaeta Cuticular shield stiff, iron-impregnated shield on the posterior venter of sternaspidae; see sternal shield.
Polychaeta Cuticle thin, non-cellular protective layer produced by and overlying the epidermis in many invertebrate groups; consists mainly of scleroprotein (not chitin).
Polychaeta Cutis see dermis.
Polychaeta Cutting plate distal part of eunicean mandible.
Polychaeta Deciduous pertaining to structures easily autotomised, or shed by the animal as a defensive reaction.
Polychaeta Dendrites branching cytoplasmic processes of sensory cells.
Polychaeta Dental formula notation showing the distribution of teeth on the crest of a hook or uncinus.
Polychaeta Dentate toothed.
Polychaeta Denticle a minute tooth.
Polychaeta Denticulate finely toothed.
Polychaeta Depressed flattened, usually dorso-ventrally.
Polychaeta Dermis layer of skin underlying the epidermis; comprises connective tissue and a range of other cell types, such as pigment and nerve cells.
Polychaeta Detritus particles of organic origin.
Polychaeta Diagonal muscle obliquely aligned dorso-ventral muscle in the body wall (cf. Oblique muscle).
Polychaeta Digitiform finger-shaped.
Polychaeta Dioecious (= gonochorism, gonochoric) pertaining species, in which individuals are either male or female throughout life.
Polychaeta Direct developers embryos that develop completely into juveniles without intermediate larval stages.
Polychaeta Distal that part of a structure towards the end.
Polychaeta Diverticulum, diverticula blind tube(s) or sac-like extension(s) of the lumen of an organ.
Polychaeta Dorsal blood vessel longitudinal vessel which carries blood forward through the body; situated above the gut.
Polychaeta Dorsal cirrus cirrus normally situated on the upper edge of the notopodium.
Polychaeta Dorsal cirrus organ sensory organ, with numerous long cilia at the ventral base of the dorsal cirrus in eunicida.
Polychaeta Dorsum dorsal surface of body.
Polychaeta Dorso-ventral muscle see diagonal muscle.
Polychaeta Echinulate prickly.
Polychaeta Elytrigerous segment polychaete segment bearing a scale.
Polychaeta Elytron, elytra dorsal scales found in the scale-worms; homologous with the dorsal cirrostyles.
Polychaeta Elytrophore cirrophore carrying an elytron, as in scale-worms.
Polychaeta Endoderm the innermost layer of germ cells developed during gastrulation.
Polychaeta Endothelium epithelial cells lining the inner wall of the circulatory system.
Polychaeta Entire margin smooth edged; lacking papillae, teeth or other projections.
Polychaeta Enteronephridia blind ciliated canals opening into the stomach.
Polychaeta Epidermis outer layer of the skin, usually one cell thick in invertebrates; derived from ectoderm.
Polychaeta Epigamy structural modification of an entire adult individual polychaete into a reproductive state or epitoke (cf. Schizogamy).
Polychaeta Epitoke an individual polychaete morphologically modified to leave the bottom to reproduce (epitoky); epigamousepitokes result from the transformation of an atoke to the epitoke; schizogamousepitokes arise by modification and separation from the posterior end of the worm. Often swarms of epitokes appear.
Polychaeta Eversible pharynx part of pharynx being capable of being extended by turning the inner part outwards.
Polychaeta Eversible proboscis see eversible pharynx.
Polychaeta Eye light receptive organ which usually occurs on the prostomium but may occur elsewhere on the body or appendages.
Polychaeta Eyespot light sensitive structure in several polychaete groups. See ocellus.
Polychaeta Facial tubercle projecting ridge or lobe on the upper lip of certain polychaetes, especially scale-worms.
Polychaeta Faecal groove groove, on the posterior region of a tubicolouspolychaete, along which the faecal pellets pass before being voided from the tube.
Polychaeta Falcate chaeta distally curved, usually blunt chaeta.
Polychaeta Falciform hook-shaped.
Polychaeta Falciger compound chaeta with a stout, hooked appendage or blade.
Polychaeta Fang a major tooth-like projection of an uncinus, hook or maxillary plate.
Polychaeta Fascicle a small bundle, of tissue, such as muscle or nerve fibres, or structures, such as chaetae.
Polychaeta Felt matted thin chaetae produced by the notopodia in some species of scale-worms.
Polychaeta Fenestrated with one or more window-like openings; used to refer to the ladder-like arrangement of transparent compartments in the shaft of some polychaete chaetae.
Polychaeta Fibrocyte connecting tissue cell, synonymous with, or derived from a fibroblast.
Polychaeta Filamentous shaped like a fine thread.
Polychaeta Filiform slender and thread-like.
Polychaeta Fimbricated having flattened, leaf-like processes.
Polychaeta Flail chaeta abruptly tapering and distally bent capillary chaeta of some orbiniids.
Polychaeta Flanged chaeta seelimbate or bilimbate chaetae.
Polychaeta Foliaceous thin and leaf-like.
Polychaeta Foot seeparapodium.
Polychaeta Foregut anterior, cuticle-lined part of the alimentary canal including the pharynx and oesophagus; derived from the ectoderm; see also stomodaeum.
Polychaeta Forked chaeta see furcate chaeta.
Polychaeta Formalin a solution of formaldehyde in water, used for fixing tissues.
Polychaeta Frontal palps anterior, sensory appendages of prostomium in onuphidae.
Polychaeta Frontal peaks seeprostomial peaks.
Polychaeta Furcate chaeta short (usually), bifurcated simple chaeta.
Polychaeta Fusiform cigar- or spindle-shaped.
Polychaeta Geniculate chaeta simple chaeta formed like a bent knee.
Polychaeta Genital hook modifiednotopodial chaeta used in mating in some capitellidae.
Polychaeta Genital papilla projection on which a reproductive duct opens.
Polychaeta Genital pore modifiednephridial opening.
Polychaeta Genital pouch a pocket-like skin fold between neuropodia in some spionidae.
Polychaeta Giant fibre enlarged fibre in the nerve cord capable of very rapid conduction of nerve impulses.
Polychaeta Gill seebranchia.
Polychaeta Gizzard muscular, barrel-shaped part of the foregut behind the pharynx in some spionidae.
Polychaeta Glabrous smooth, glistening.
Polychaeta Gonads paired segmented peritoneal organs producing eggs or sperm.
Polychaeta Gonochorism, gonochoric (= dioecious) individuals are either male or female throughout life.
Polychaeta Gonoduct seecoelomoduct; see also nephridia in echiurans and sipunculans.
Polychaeta Guard paired delicate chitinous sheaths protecting the tip of some chaetae.
Polychaeta Gular membrane amuscularised septum between two successive anterior segments; divides the coelom into anterior and posterior parts.
Polychaeta Gut sinus thin-walled open chamber of circulatory system around the gut.
Polychaeta Gynandry development of female reproductive system before male system in consecutive hermaphrodites.
Polychaeta Hadal oceanic depths exceeding 6000 m.
Polychaeta Haemerythrin respiratory pigment in sipunculans; in different taxa may comprise two, three or eight units of polypeptide attached to two fe ions.
Polychaeta Harpoon chaeta stout pointed chaeta with recurved barbs near the tip.
Polychaeta Hastate shaped like the blade of a spear.
Polychaeta Head collective term used for a structure formed by the fusion of peristomium, prostomium and, in many instances, one or more cephalised segments.
Polychaeta Hemigomph compound chaeta with articulation which re-aligns the tip at close to a right angle to its long axis.
Polychaeta Hermaphroditism presence of functional male and female reproductive systems in an individual, at the same time (simultaneous hermaphroditism) or sequentially (consecutive hermaphroditism).
Polychaeta Heterogomph compound chaeta with articulation which clearly re-aligns the tip obliquely to the long axis of the shaft.
Polychaeta Hindgut posterior-most region of the alimentary canal, usually short; ectodermally derived.
Polychaeta Hirsute hairy, often with reference to chaetae.
Polychaeta Hispid minutely hairy; furry, often with reference to chaetae.
Polychaeta Homogomph compound chaeta with articulation which re-aligns the tip at a right angle to its long axis.
Polychaeta Homologues structures of common evolutionary origins, irrespective of functionality, derived from the same structure in the common ancestor.
Polychaeta Homology fundamental similarity in different organisms as a result of their common ancestry.
Polychaeta Homoplasy correspondence in morphology of different organisms as a result of evolutionary convergence or parallel evolution.
Polychaeta Hood a delicate chitinous envelope with a single opening, covering the apex of hooks or other chaetae (see also guards).
Polychaeta Hook stout-shafted, unjointed, distally-curved chaeta with or without teeth near the apex.
Polychaeta Hyaline transparent, glassy.
Polychaeta Hyaline gland gland in the pinnules of certain species oftomopteris; usually translucent, sometimes with a yellow spot in the centre.
Polychaeta Hydrostatic skeleton controlled support provided by muscular pressure on body fluids, especially the major venous sinuses; used to modify body or organ shape.
Polychaeta Hydrothermal vent site of emerging, often highly sulphidic hot water, after it has circulated through new crustal rocks at spreading ridges in the deep-sea floor.
Polychaeta Imbricated overlapping like tiles.
Polychaeta Intermediate cirrus cirriform structure attached to the body wall between the notopodium and neuropodium.
Polychaeta Inter-ramal cirrus acirriform structure attached to the notopodium, projecting into the space between the notopodium and the neuropodium.
Polychaeta Intersegmental between segments.
Polychaeta Intestine absorptive part of the midgut, usually a straight tube.
Polychaeta Iteroparity breeding in more than one season, often at regular intervals.
Polychaeta Jaw formula see maxillary formula.
Polychaeta Jaws hardened feeding or grasping apparatus with opposable units situated in the eversible pharynx.
Polychaeta Jointed chaeta see compound chaeta.
Polychaeta Labial palps ventral sensory appendages of prostomium in eunicida.
Polychaeta Labidognath arrangement of complex jaw apparatus in which the larger jaw pieces are located in a pocket with the smaller pieces arranged in semi-circles at the anterior end.
Polychaeta Lacuna(e) space(s) or cavity (cavities), usually with reference to those in tissues.
Polychaeta Lamella, lamellae fleshy, flattened or plate-like structure(s).
Polychaeta Lamellate plate-like, usually referring to a lobe.
Polychaeta Lanceolate pointed and shaped like a lance.
Polychaeta Lappet lobe or flap-like projection.
Polychaeta Lateral caecum blind sac arising laterally from the alimentary canal.
Polychaeta Lateral lappet lobe or flap-like projection on anterior segments in terebellidae.
Polychaeta Lateral organ small, rounded inter-ramal elevations with stiff projecting hairs; see also dorsal cirrus organ, stereocilia.
Polychaeta Lateral shield glandular area on the lateral venter of thoracic segments inpolycirrus;cf. Ventral pads.
Polychaeta Lecithotrophy form of development in which larvae generally do not feed, relying on yolk in egg.
Polychaeta Ligule compressed conical lobe of a parapodium;cf. Lobe.
Polychaeta Limbate chaeta simple chaeta with a flattened wing projecting from one side along much of its distal half; see also bilimbate.
Polychaeta Lobe conical process of a parapodium;cf. Ligule.
Polychaeta Long-handled uncinus uncinus with a long, rod-like basal extension.
Polychaeta Longitudinal muscle muscle layer running parallel to the long axis of the body, between the circular muscle and the peritoneum; usually arranged in two dorso-lateral and two ventro-lateral bands.
Polychaeta Lyre chaeta, lyrate chaeta delicate forked-type chaeta. See furcate chaeta.
Polychaeta Macrobenthos benthic invertebrate fraction retained in a 1 mm sieve.
Polychaeta Macrognaths paired lateral jaw pieces of goniadidae.
Polychaeta Macrotubercle see tubercle.
Polychaeta Main fang see fang, see also primary tooth.
Polychaeta Mammillate pertaining to nipple-like process.
Polychaeta Mammiliform breast-shaped.
Polychaeta Mandible ventral jaw plate in eunicida.
Polychaeta Maxilla dorsal jaw plate in eunicida.
Polychaeta Maxillary carrier posterior support for the maxillae.
Polychaeta Maxillary formula summary of the number and arrangement of maxillary plates and teeth in eunicida.
Polychaeta Maxillary ring distal part of the everted pharynx in nereididae.
Polychaeta Medial the mid-line regions of the body.
Polychaeta Median in the mid-line.
Polychaeta Meiobenthos benthic invertebrate fraction that passes through a 1 mm sieve but is retained on a 42mm sieve.
Polychaeta Metamerism, metameres segmentation of the body into a series of similar units, termed metameres.
Polychaeta Metanephridia type of nephridia in which the coelomic end has an open funnel
Polychaeta Metastomium rarely used term covering the segmented body between the prostomium/peristomium and the pygidium, but including neither.
Polychaeta Micrognaths numerous small jaw pieces arranged in a ring in the pharynx of goniadidae.
Polychaeta Microtubercle see tubercle.
Polychaeta Microvilli minute, very slender (>0.01 mm diameter) extensions of surface of epithelial cells.
Polychaeta Midgut central part of the alimentary canal comprising the stomach, when present, and the intestine; endodermal origin.
Polychaeta Mitraria larva larva of oweniidpolychaete; swim by ciliary action of an umbrella-like structure.
Polychaeta Moniliform beaded or beadlike.
Polychaeta Monophyly, monophyletic pertaining to a group of taxa comprising a common ancestor and all its descendants.
Polychaeta Mouth anterior opening of the alimentary canal; usually anterior opening of fully everted pharynx.
Polychaeta Mucro a sharp point or tip on an abruptly tapering structure.
Polychaeta Mucronate sharply pointed.
Polychaeta Multiarticulate with three or more joints.
Polychaeta Multidigitate with many finger-like lobes or projections.
Polychaeta Mutualism symbiotic association between two members of different species which benefits both organisms.
Polychaeta Myo-epithelium epidermal layer which includes contractile epithelial cells.
Polychaeta Natatory swimming.
Polychaeta Nectochaete developmental stage of an annelid following metatrochophore (up to 20 or so chaetigers); ciliation is reduced and parapodia function in locomotion.
Polychaeta Nematoform worm-like.
Polychaeta Nephridial papilla projection on which the excretory organ opens.
Polychaeta Nephridiopore the external opening of a metanephridium; see also nephridium.
Polychaeta Nephridium, nephridia excretory organ(s) opening to the exterior via a duct and a nephridiopore; fluid enters the internal end of the more primitive protonephridium through selenocytes; fluid enters the internal end of metanephridiumthough an open, ciliated funnel termed a nephrostome.
Polychaeta Nephromixia combinations of coelomoduct and nephridium termed protonephromixium, metanephromixium and mixonephridium; in protonephromixium, mesodermal components are fused with a protonephridial canal; in a metanephromixium, the mesodermal funnel has become joined with an open nephrostome; in a mixonephridium the coelomic end of the nephridium is completely fused with the funnel of a coelomoduct.
Polychaeta Nephrostome ciliated funnel of the coelomic opening of a metanephridium; see also nephridium.
Polychaeta Nerve cord ventral, segmentally ganglionated nerve trunk passing along the length of the body.
Polychaeta Neuroacicula acicula of the neuropodium.
Polychaeta Neurochaeta chaeta of a neuropodium.
Polychaeta Neurocirrus see ventral cirrus.
Polychaeta Neurofibrils fineproteinaceous longitudinal fibres forming a network within the nerve cell body, axons and dendrites.
Polychaeta Neuropodium, neuropodia ventral branch or ramus of a parapodium.
Polychaeta Neuroseta seeneurochaeta.
Polychaeta Neurotroch longitudinal ventral band of cilia in trochophore.
Polychaeta Notoacicula acicula of the notopodium.
Polychaeta Notochaeta, notochaetae chaeta of a notopodium.
Polychaeta Notocirrus see dorsal cirrus.
Polychaeta Notopodium, notopodia dorsal branch or ramus of a parapodium.
Polychaeta Notoseta seenotochaeta.
Polychaeta Nototroch regularly scattered dorsal ciliary bands on body of trochophore larva.
Polychaeta Nuchal pertaining to the neck.
Polychaeta Nuchal cirrus see nuchal papilla.
Polychaeta Nuchal epaulettes see nuchal organs.
Polychaeta Nuchal organs paired chemosensory structures situated postero-laterally on the prostomium, developed variously as pits, grooves, epaulettes, or elongated ridges.
Polychaeta Nuchal papilla papilla found on the posterior margin of the prostomium of some phyllodocidae and spionidae.
Polychaeta Oblique muscle muscle attached to the aciculae and chaetae;cf. Diagonal muscle.
Polychaeta Occipital pertaining to the postero-dorsal part of the prostomium.
Polychaeta Occipital collar a prominent fold immediately overlapping the posterior part of the prostomium.
Polychaeta Occipital fold see occipital collar.
Polychaeta Occipital lappet see occipital collar.
Polychaeta Occipital papilla see nuchal papilla.
Polychaeta Ocellus, ocelli small eye spot(s).
Polychaeta Ocular pertaining to the eye.
Polychaeta Ocular peduncle seeommatophore.
Polychaeta Oesophageal caecum blind sac arising from the oesophagus.
Polychaeta Oesophagus posterior part of the foregut connecting the pharynx to the intestine; includes the gizzard or proventricle, and caeca when present.
Polychaeta Ommatidium functional optic unit of the compound eyes on the tentacular crown of some sabellidans.
Polychaeta Ommatophore projecting structure supporting the eyes, especially in scale-worms.
Polychaeta Oocyte female reproductive cell; diploid primary oocyte forms, through meiosis during oogenesis, a haploid secondary oocyte which divides to form an ovum.
Polychaeta Oogenesis formation and development of female gametes from diploid oogonia to mature, haploid ova.
Polychaeta Oogonia diploid precursor of primary oocytes, derived by mitosis during oogenesis.
Polychaeta Operculum, opercula plug at the anterior end of some tube-dwellers which blocks the tube opening when the worm retracts.
Polychaeta Oral cavity mouth cavity.
Polychaeta Oral filaments see tentacles.
Polychaeta Oral ring proximal part of the everted pharynx in nereididae.
Polychaeta Otocysts seestatocysts.
Polychaeta Oviduct tube conducting eggs or oocytes to exterior.
Polychaeta Oviparous pertaining to deposition of eggs which develop completely and hatch externally.
Polychaeta Ovoid shaped like a bird’s egg.
Polychaeta Palea, paleae broad, usually flattened chaetae, often with a metallic sheen.
Polychaeta Palmate resembling the fronds of a palm.
Polychaeta Palp, palpi one of a set of paired, elongate or cushion-like structures arising from the sides of the head; anteroventral and sensory in many ‘errant’ polychaetes; placed postero-dorsally and used in feeding in spioniformpolychaetes.
Polychaeta Palpode tapering anterior projection of the prostomium.
Polychaeta Palpophore basal part of a jointed palp.
Polychaeta Palpostyle distal part of a jointed palp.
Polychaeta Papilla, papillae a small, nipple-like projection.
Polychaeta Papillose bearing numerous small, rounded to conical projections.
Polychaeta Paragnath formula summary of number and arrangement of denticles on the pharynx in nereididae.
Polychaeta Paragnath sclerotiniseddenticle on the pharynx in nereididae.
Polychaeta Paraphyly, paraphyletic pertaining to a group of taxa comprising a common ancestor but not all of its descendants; see polyphyly and monophyly.
Polychaeta Parapodial trunk proximal, undivided part of an elongate parapodium.
Polychaeta Parapodium, parapodia one of the two fleshy lateral projections from a body segment, usually bearing chaetae and sometimes greatly reduced.
Polychaeta Paratomy seeschizotomy.
Polychaeta Parenchyma mesodermal tissue surrounding, and filling spaces between organs, muscles and other tissues.
Polychaeta Pectinate comb-like; with series of projections arranged like the teeth of a comb.
Polychaeta Pectinate chaeta see comb chaeta.
Polychaeta Pedicel a short stalk.
Polychaeta Penicillate chaeta simple chaeta with a brush-like tip.
Polychaeta Peristalsis rhythmic, directional wave of muscular contraction in a vessel or tube.
Polychaeta Peristome seeperistomium.
Polychaeta Peristomial cirri paired, elongated cirri on the peristomium.
Polychaeta Peristomial ring annulus associated with the peristomium.
Polychaeta Peristomium presegmental region of the body that lies between the prostomium and the first segment; in many polychaetes the peristomium only forms an area around the mouth.
Polychaeta Peritoneum serous membrane lining the coelomic cavity.
Polychaeta Pharyngeal organ seebuccal organ.
Polychaeta Pharynx, pharynges anterior muscular part of the foregut, including the eversible proboscis.
Polychaeta Pilose covered with very short hairs giving a velvety appearance.
Polychaeta Pinnate feather-like; two rows of pinnules branching from a central axis (cf. Bipinnate; bipectinate).
Polychaeta Pinnules small side branches, in a feather-shaped process, such as the radiole in sabellidae and serpulidae.
Polychaeta Piriform seepyriform.
Polychaeta Planktotrophic larval development in which eggs with little yolk hatch as small, free-swimming trochophores which feed on algae in the water column.
Polychaeta Platelet syncytial mass of spermatozoa.
Polychaeta Plesiomorphy primitive retained character; compare apomorphy.
Polychaeta Plumose resembling down; hairy.
Polychaeta Polyphyly pertaining to a group comprising two or more taxa derived from distinct lineages.
Polychaeta Polytelic pertaining to individuals or species in which adults survive to spawn during two or more breeding seasons.
Polychaeta Polytomy, polytomous incompletely resolved node on tree of relationships, where several branches originate together.
Polychaeta Polytypic pertaining to a genus with more than one species, a family with more than one genus, etc.
Polychaeta Postchaetal posterior to the chaetae; used in relation to parapodial lobes or ligules.
Polychaeta Postsetal seepostchaetal.
Polychaeta Prechaetal anterior to the chaetae, used in relation to parapodial lobes or ligules.
Polychaeta Presetal seeprechaetal.
Polychaeta Primary tooth larger distal tooth of an unequally bidentate chaeta.
Polychaeta Prionognath arrangement of complex jaw apparatus in which the generally similar jaw-pieces are located in two rows on longitudinal ridges.
Polychaeta Proboscis, proboscides eversible, non-muscular part of the buccal organ (strictly); often used interchangeably with pharynx.
Polychaeta Prostomial keel see cephalic keel.
Polychaeta Prostomial peaks antero-lateral projections, often chitinised, of the prostomium in some scale-worms.
Polychaeta Prostomium, prostomia anteriormost, presegmental and pretrochal region of the body, sometimes bearing eyes and antennae; may not be externally recognisable.
Polychaeta Protandry, protandrous sequence of sexual stages, from a functional male stage to a hermaphroditic and/or a functional female stage in consecutive hermaphrodites.
Polychaeta Protogyny, protogynous sequence from a functional female stage to a hermaphroditic and/or a functional male stage in consecutive hermaphrodites.
Polychaeta Protonephridia type of nephridia in which the coelomic end is closed
Polychaeta Protostomia, protostomes primary grouping in bilateral animals characterised by determinate cleavage, in which the fate of cells is pre-determined; found in platyhelminthes, annelids, molluscs and arthropods.
Polychaeta Prototroch primary, anterior-most transverse ring of locomotory cilia on the body of the trochophore larva, lying anterior to the mouth.
Polychaeta Proventricle muscularised region of the anterior digestive tract occurring posterior to the pharynx; with muscle fibres arranged radially; characteristic of the syllidae.
Polychaeta Proventriculus seeproventricle.
Polychaeta Proximal part of a structure nearer to the base or main body.
Polychaeta Psammophilic pertaining to sand-dwelling organisms.
Polychaeta Pseudocompound pertaining to compound chaeta in which the articulation is incomplete.
Polychaeta Pseudocopulation a form of sperm transfer in some polychaete groups involving spermatophores, spermatozeugmata, or free spermatozoa.
Polychaeta Pseudofaeces sediment particles transported upwards from feeding depths by a polychaete worm and ejected from the tube; texturally indistinguishable from faeces.
Polychaeta Pseudojointed seepseudocompound.
Polychaeta Pygidial pertaining to the anal region or pygidium.
Polychaeta Pygidial cirrus cirrus projecting from the pygidium.
Polychaeta Pygidium post-segmental terminal part of the body surrounding the anus.
Polychaeta Pyriform with a broad bulbous base and tapered tip; pear- or onion-shaped.
Polychaeta Pyriform glands multicellular epidermal glands which secrete chitin and mucopolysaccharides to form the pogonophoran (siboglinidae) tube.
Polychaeta Radiole, radii primary branch in the tentacular crown in sabellidae and serpulidae.
Polychaeta Radiolar crown aradiolar crown is a feather-like feeding and respiratory structure comprising radioles which are basally attached to a lobe surrounding the mouth; in serpulidae and sabellidae only. See also branchial crown.
Polychaeta Ramose branched.
Polychaeta Ramus, rami branch, in relation to the dorsal or ventral branch of a parapodium.
Polychaeta Raptorial feeding mode involving snatching, seizing or tearing apart.
Polychaeta Rectum see hindgut.
Polychaeta Reniform kidney-shaped.
Polychaeta Reticulate pattern or structure forming a network or mesh.
Polychaeta Retort organ club-shaped gland opening into the buccal cavity in typhloscolecidae.
Polychaeta Rhabdomere photoreceptive element of a compound eye.
Polychaeta Ringent chaeta simple, subdistally expanded chaeta with a narrow slit which is internally crenulated or serrated; in euphrosinidae.
Polychaeta Rosette gland yellowish star-shaped glands in the pinnules of some species oftomopteris; see also chromatophil gland.
Polychaeta Rosette syncytial mass of spermatozoa.
Polychaeta Rostrum enlarged first tooth or fang of a chaeta, usually a hook or uncinus.
Polychaeta Rugose roughened, lumpy.
Polychaeta Sabre chaetae, sabre-like chaetae chaeta with a broad curved blade.
Polychaeta Scale see elytron.
Polychaeta Scaphe flattened caudal end in pectinariidae; see also pygidium.
Polychaeta Schizogamousepitoke seeepitoke.
Polychaeta Schizogamy structural modification of the adult involving the budding off of sexual individuals; see also stolons, epigamy.
Polychaeta Schizotomy asexual reproduction involving two forms of subdivision of the body and regeneration of the missing parts; in paratomy, a recognisable complete individual forms and then separates from the 'parent' stock; in architomy, the body breaks or fragments without any prior cephalisation.
Polychaeta Scleroprotein one of a group of proteins incorporated into skeletal, connective or epidermal structure.
Polychaeta Sclerotinised pertaining to the hardening of the exoskeleton with the quinone-tanned protein sclerotin.
Polychaeta Secondary tooth smaller, proximal tooth of an unequally bidentate chaeta.
Polychaeta Segment one of the serially repeated units comprising the trunk; often separated internally by septa.
Polychaeta Segmental organs organs occurring in segmental arrangement; used specifically with reference to nephridia and nephridial ducts.
Polychaeta Selenocyte blind-ending region at the coelomic end of the metanephridium; see also nephridium.
Polychaeta Semelparity death following a single reproductive season.
Polychaeta Sensory buds epithelial sensory/secretory structures on antennae and cirri.
Polychaeta Septum, septa structural partition(s) or division(s) between two visceral regions, within a haemocoel, or separating two cavities or tissue masses.
Polychaeta Sesquigomph seehemigomph (articulation).
Polychaeta Sesquiramousparapodium see sub-biramousparapodium.
Polychaeta Sessile pertaining to organisms attached to or situated directly on the substratum; without a stalk.
Polychaeta Seta, setae see chaeta, chaetae.
Polychaeta Setal seechaetal.
Polychaeta Setiger seechaetiger.
Polychaeta Setigerous pertaining to setae.
Polychaeta Setigerous lobe seechaetigerous lobe.
Polychaeta Shaft proximal part of a compound or simple chaeta; or proximal part of a eunicean mandible.
Polychaeta Sheath hyaline envelope covering a capillary chaeta.
Polychaeta Short-handled uncinus uncinus without a long basal extension.
Polychaeta Sickle chaeta simple chaeta with a sickle-shaped blade in some spirorbinae.
Polychaeta Simple chaeta unjointed chaeta, includes hair-like (capillary) and robust (spines) types.
Polychaeta Simultaneous hermaphroditism presence of functional male and female reproductive systems in an individual at the same time.
Polychaeta Solenocytes terminal cells at the internal end of a protonephridium; responsible for filtering waste products from the coelomic fluid.
Polychaeta Spatulate, spathulate simple chaeta with a broadly expanded distal margin; like a spatula; spoon-shaped.
Polychaeta Spermathecae seminal receptacles.
Polychaeta Spermatid haploid, immature precursor of spermatozoon; derived from secondary spermatocyte.
Polychaeta Spermatogenesis process of sperm formation from diploid primordial spermatogonia to haploid spermatozoa.
Polychaeta Spermatogonia the earliest germ cells in the spermatogenic sequence.
Polychaeta Spermatophores bundles of spermatozoa, all enclosed by a sheath or capsule isolating them from the surrounding environment; see also spermatozeugmata.
Polychaeta Spermatozeugmata bundles of spermatozoa which are not surrounded by an external covering; may resemble bundles of late spermatids; see also spermatophores.
Polychaeta Spindle-shaped shaped like a cigar with pointed ends.
Polychaeta Spine a thick acicular or spear-shaped chaeta; may be straight or slightly curved.
Polychaeta Spiniger, spinigerous chaeta compound chaeta tapering distally to a fine point.
Polychaeta Spinning gland gland secreting tube-forming material (threads) present in parapodia of certain scale-worms.
Polychaeta Spinous pocket enlarged, pocket-like serration along the margin of the chaetae of some scale-worms.
Polychaeta Spinule a small spine.
Polychaeta Spinulose bearing small spines.
Polychaeta Squamous epithelium epidermal layer of flattened, scale-like cells.
Polychaeta Statocysts paired epithelial organs at the base of the tentacular crown in sabellids that function in equilibrium and orientation.
Polychaeta Stem cells undifferentiated adult or embryonic cell capable of unlimited division and of giving rise to one or more cell types.
Polychaeta Stereocilia inter-ramal sensory cilia; see also dorsal cirrus organ, lateral organ.
Polychaeta Sternal shield modification of the last segments forming a ventral plate in sternaspidae; see also cuticular shield.
Polychaeta Stolon secondary individual formed by budding, usually from the posterior end, or elsewhere on the body.
Polychaeta Stolonisation form of asexual reproduction involving the formation of stolons.
Polychaeta Stomach glandular and/or muscular region of the midgut of most ‘sedentary’ polychaetes.
Polychaeta Stomodaeum, stomadeum anterior part of the embryonic alimentary canal formed as an invagination of the ectoderm; see also foregut.
Polychaeta Striae fine parallel marks or lines.
Polychaeta Striated withstriae.
Polychaeta Stylet a small pointed tooth-like structure.
Polychaeta Stylode finger-like projection associated with a parapodium, usually small and distinctly longer than wide.
Polychaeta Sub-biramousparapodium parapodium with a well-developed neuropodium and reduced notopodium.
Polychaeta Suboesophageal ganglion nerve centre at the junction of the circumoesophageal connectives and the ventral nerve cord.
Polychaeta Subterminal close to the apex of a structure.
Polychaeta Subulate awl-shaped.
Polychaeta Subuluncinus, subuluncini chaeta with a stout shaft tapering to a slender tip; intermediate between a capillary and an uncinus; see also aristate.
Polychaeta Symbiont participant in a mutualistic, commensal or parasitic relationship.
Polychaeta Symplesiomorphy primitive retained character shared by two or more taxa; compare synapomorphy.
Polychaeta Synapomorphy derived character shared by two or more taxa.
Polychaeta Synapse junction between two nerve cells or a nerve cell with another cell type such as muscle.
Polychaeta Tentacles general term for the long, paired or multiple food-gathering appendages; most are grooved and/or have a longitudinal row of cilia; see also buccal cirri, buccal tentacles, oral filaments.
Polychaeta Tentacular cirri dorsal and/or ventral cirri of parapodia of cephalised segments; often more elongate than those of more posterior parapodia; confused in the literature with peristomial cirri.
Polychaeta Tentacular crown array of elongated, longitudinally-grooved appendages on the head in terebellida; used for feeding.
Polychaeta Tentacular membrane thin fold or hood extending from prostomium and bearing tentacles, often on its margin.
Polychaeta Tentacular formula notation indicating the arrangement of the tentacular cirri and chaetae; originally used for phyllodocidae and alciopidae, now also extended to other families.
Polychaeta Tentaculophore basal projection on which a tentacle is mounted.
Polychaeta Terminal tooth see primary tooth.
Polychaeta Tessellated pertaining to a surface with a network of grooves like a tiled wall.
Polychaeta Thoracic membrane thin fold extending from the dorsal part of the collar to the ventral side of the posterior thorax in most serpulidae.
Polychaeta Thorax anterior region of the trunk in some polychaetes.
Polychaeta Tine prong of a forked-type chaeta; may be smooth or fringed with hairs
Polychaeta Torus, tori welt or ridge-like parapodial ramus, often with hooks or uncini.
Polychaeta Trabeculae struts of tissue forming a supportive or bracing framework within a space.
Polychaeta Trepan sclerotinised ring of teeth in the anterior pharynx of syllidae.
Polychaeta Trichogenic cells cells which secrete fine hair-like threads.
Polychaeta Tridentate with three teeth.
Polychaeta Trochophore early, ciliated, free-swimming, planktonic larval stage before segment proliferation begins
Polychaeta Truncate pertaining to a structure that ends abruptly, without tapering.
Polychaeta Trunk the segmented region of the body between the peristomium and pygidium.
Polychaeta Tubercle knob-likeprotruberance; often referring to a large (macrotubercle) or small (microtubercle) projection on the elytron of some polynoidae.
Polychaeta Unciniger segment carrying uncini.
Polychaeta Uncinigerous bearinguncini.
Polychaeta Uncinus, uncini deeply embedded short beak-like chaeta with a heavily dentate crest and weklydevleloped (or no) shaft; usually arranged in rows transverse to the long axis of the animal; see also long-handled uncinus.
Polychaeta Unidentate distally entire; often pertaining to chaetae.
Polychaeta Uniramous parapodium parapodium in which one ramus, most frequently the notopodium, is absent.
Polychaeta Unjointed chaeta see simple chaeta.
Polychaeta Urite projection from the pygidium.
Polychaeta Venter, ventrum the lower body surface.
Polychaeta Ventral blood vessel longitudinal vessel which carries blood posteriorly through the body; situated beneath the gut.
Polychaeta Ventral buccal organ variable, often complex set of folds, musculature and glands present on the ventral side of many polychaetes; see pharynx.
Polychaeta Ventral cirrus cirrus normally situated on the lower edge of the neuropodium.
Polychaeta Ventral groove longitudinal mid-ventral furrow.
Polychaeta Ventral muscle bulb see pharynx.
Polychaeta Ventral pads glandular areas on the lateral venter of thoracic segments in some eunicida, where they replace ventral cirri;cf.Lateral shields.
Polychaeta Ventral shield glandular, segmentally arranged pads on the mid-ventral thorax in many terebellida.
Polychaeta Vermiform worm-like in form.
Polychaeta Vestimentum body region in vestimentiferans (siboglinidae), on which lateral flaps enfold the anterior part of the body behind the plume.
Polychaeta Villus, villi series of small, digitate tubules arising from the contractile vessel of some sipunculans.
Polychaeta Vitellogenesis formation of egg yolk.
Polychaeta Winged capillary chaeta seelimbate or bilimbate chaetae.
Polychaeta Zygote product of fused haploid spermatozoa and ovum, forming a diploid cell.
Porifera Archaeocytes (amoebocytes) Cells with pseudopods, located in the mesohyl. They are used in processing food, distributing it to other cells, and for other functions.
Porifera Benthic living at or near the bottom of the seas.
Porifera Choanocyte also called collar cells, choanocytes line the inner cavity of the sponge. They have a sticky, funnel shaped collar (that collects food particles) and a flagellum (which whips around, moving water). The sponge obtains its nutrients and oxygen by processing flowing water using choanocytes. Choanocytes are also involved in sponge reproduction; they catch floating sperm.
Porifera Epidermis (pinacocyte) the epidermis is the layer of cells that covers the outer surface of the sponge. The thin, flattened cells of the epidermis are called pinacocytes.
Porifera Flagellum the whip like structure of a choanocyte; the flagellum moves, pushing water (which contains nourishment) through the sponge
Porifera Hermaphrodite an animal in which each adult can act as either the female or the male in reproduction.
Porifera Holdfast root like tendrils that attach the sponge to rocks.
Porifera Invertebrate an animal without a backbone.
Porifera Mesohyl (mesenchyme) the gelatinous layer between the outer body of the sponge and the spongocoel (the inner cavity).
Porifera Osculum a large opening in a sponge through which water flows out of the sponge. Sponges may have more than one oscula.
Porifera Ostia a series of tiny pores all over the body of a sponge that let water into the sponge. One of these is called an ostium.
Porifera Pinacocyte pinacocytes are the thin, flattened cells of the epidermis, the sponge's outer layer of cells.
Porifera Porocyte cells with pores that allow water into the sponge; they are located all over the sponge's body.
Porifera Sessile permanently attached to a substrate and unable to move on its own. Adult sponges are sessile.
Porifera Spicule spicules are sharp spikes (made of calcium carbonate) located in the mesohyl. Spicules form the "skeleton" of many sponges.
Porifera Spongin the flexible, fibrous fibers that form the skeleton of horny sponges; spongin is located within the mesohyl.
Porifera Spongocoel the central, open cavity in a sponge through which water flows.
Porifera Water flows into the sponge water flows into a sponge through cells with pores (these cells are called porocytes) located all over its body.
Porifera Water flows out of the sponge water flows out of a sponge through large openings called oscula (plural). Each of these large openings is called an osculum.
Scaphopoda Abdomen A body region of an animal that corresponds to the belly. In arthropods this region is usually muscular and may contain gills.
Scaphopoda aboral surface The surface opposite the mouth of, for example, a sea star.
Scaphopoda adductor muscle A large muscle that closes a bivalve’s shell.
Scaphopoda ambulacral groove A groove through which the tube feet of an echinoderm extend.
Scaphopoda amphipod A type of crustacean with a body similar to a shrimp belonging to the order Amphipoda.
Scaphopoda ampulla An expanded area of a tubular structure; in echinoderms, a saclike structure attached to the tube foot.
Scaphopoda annelid A segmented worm belonging to the phylum Annelida.
Scaphopoda aperture An opening, such as the opening into a gastropod’s shell.
Scaphopoda Aristotle’s lantern A chewing structure composed of five teeth found in the mouths of sea urchins.
Scaphopoda arrowworm A planktonic animal belonging to the phylum Chaetognatha.
Scaphopoda arthropod An animal belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Arthropods are characterized by jointed appendages and a hard exterior covering (exoskeleton).
Scaphopoda autotomize To purposely cast off a body part.
Scaphopoda barnacle A sessile crustacean whose body is usually covered by plates composed of calcium carbonate.
Scaphopoda beardworm An animal belonging to the annelid class Pogonophora.
Scaphopoda bivalve A type of mollusc whose body is covered by a two-pieced, hinged shell.
Scaphopoda bulb gland A gland found in molluscs of the family Conidae which produces the toxin that coats their radulae.
Scaphopoda byssal threads Strong protein fibers secreted by mussels that fasten the animal to a rock or another solid surface.
Scaphopoda byssus A tough protein secreted by a gland in the foot of some bivalves that commonly takes the form of threads. It is used to attach the bivalve to a solid surface such as rock or coral.
Scaphopoda carapace The hard dorsal covering of the bodies of animals such as arthropods and turtles.
Scaphopoda carnivore An animal that feeds on other animals.
Scaphopoda casting A pile of organic material and minerals defecated by deposit feeders. Also known asfecal cast.
Scaphopoda cephalochordate An animal belonging to the subphylum Cephalochordata. Also known as alancelet.
Scaphopoda cephalopod An animal belonging to the molluscan class Cephalopoda, which includes squids, octopods, cuttlefish, and nautiloids.
Scaphopoda cephalothorax The combination of two body regions: the head and the thorax.
Scaphopoda cerata Projections on the body of a nudibranch that function in gas exchange.
Scaphopoda chelicera An appendage in chelicerates that is modified for feeding and takes the place of mouthparts.
Scaphopoda chelicerate An animal belonging to the arthropod subphylum Chelicerata; they have a pair of oral appendages calledcheliceraethat are used in feeding.
Scaphopoda chelipeds Legs bearing clawlike structures (chela) in arthropods.
Scaphopoda chitin A polysaccharide found in the cell walls of fungi and in the exoskeletons of many arthropods.
Scaphopoda chiton A mollusc belonging to the class Polyplacophora. Chitons are characterized by a shell composed of eight separate plates bound together by a leathery girdle.
Scaphopoda chordate An animal belonging to the phylum Chordata characterized by having a notochord, pharyngeal gill slits, postanal tail, and dorsal, hollow nerve tube sometime in its life cycle.
Scaphopoda chromatophore A special cell in an animal’s skin that contains pigment molecules.
Scaphopoda cirri Grasping structures found on some species of sea lily.
Scaphopoda cirriped Feathery appendage used by barnacles to filter food from the surrounding water.
Scaphopoda coleoid A cephalopod belonging to the subclass Coleoidea that does not have an external shell.
Scaphopoda conchiolin The protein that makes up the periostracum of a molluscan shell.
Scaphopoda copepod A crustacean belonging to the class Copepoda, usually the most abundant member of the marine zooplankton.
Scaphopoda copulatorypleopod Specialized appendage on the abdomens of male decapods used for transferring sperm to females.
Scaphopoda crinoid An animal belonging to the echinoderm class Crinoidea. These generally sessile animals have bodies that resemble flowers and are commonly referred to as sea lilies.
Scaphopoda crop A digestive organ found in some animals that stores food before it is processed.
Scaphopoda crustacean An animal belonging to the arthropod class Crustacea, which includes crabs, lobsters, shrimp, and barnacles.
Scaphopoda Cuvierian tubule Small, sticky tube expelled from the anus of some sea cucumbers to distract predators.
Scaphopoda cyprid larva A planktonic larval stage of barnacles that develops from a nauplius larva and has compound eyes and a carapace composed of two shell plates.
Scaphopoda decapod An animal with five pairs of walking legs that belongs to the arthropod order Decapoda, which includes crabs, lobsters, and shrimp.
Scaphopoda deposit feeder An animal that feeds on bottom sediments.
Scaphopoda echinoderm An animal belonging to the phylum Echinodermata, which includes sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, and crinoids.
Scaphopoda echinoid An echinoderm belonging to the class Echinoidea, which includes sea urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars, and sea biscuits.
Scaphopoda echiuran An animal that belongs to the class Echiura in the phylum Annelida. Also known as aspoonworm.
Scaphopoda ectoparasite A parasite that attaches to the outer covering of its host.
Scaphopoda endoskeleton An internal skeleton.
Scaphopoda epitoke The pelagic, reproductive individual formed by some errant polychaetes.
Scaphopoda epitoky A type of reproduction that occurs in some polychaetes that involves the production of a reproductive individual (epitoke) adapted for a pelagic existence from a nonreproductive individual adapted for a benthic existence.
Scaphopoda errant polychaete An actively mobile polychaete that has a mouth equipped with jaws or teeth.
Scaphopoda eviscerate The release of internal organs from the mouth or anus. This behavior is used by sea cucumbers to deter predation.
Scaphopoda exhalant opening The opening of a bivalve’s or tunicate’s siphon, through which water is expelled from the body.
Scaphopoda exoskeleton A hard, protective exterior skeleton such as that found in arthropods.
Scaphopoda fecal cast A pile of organic material and minerals defecated by deposit feeders. Also known ascasting.
Scaphopoda fertilizin A chemical released by some female epitokes that stimulates males to shed their sperm.
Scaphopoda filter-feeder An organism that filters its food from the water.
Scaphopoda gastrodermis The cellular lining of the gastrovascular cavity of cnidarians and ctenophores.
Scaphopoda gastropod A member of the molluscan class Gastropoda, which includes snails, limpets, abalones, and nudibranchs.
Scaphopoda gastrovascular cavity A central cavity in the body of cnidarians and flatworms that functions in digestion and in the movement of materials within the animal.
Scaphopoda gnathopods Specialized appendages found on amphipods that are used for collecting food.
Scaphopoda grasping spine A structure on the head of an arrowworm used to capture prey.
Scaphopoda head-foot The region of the gastropod body that contains the head, with its mouth and sensory organs, and the foot, which is the animal’s organ of locomotion.
Scaphopoda hemichordate An animal in the phylum Hemichordata. Also known as anacorn worm.
Scaphopoda herbivore An animal that eats only plants and algae.
Scaphopoda holothurin A poison from the flesh of sea cucumbers that protects the animal from predation by fishes and that is used by Pacific islanders to poison fishes.
Scaphopoda hydroid A colonial organism belonging to the cnidarian class Hydrozoa. Also known as ahydrozoan.
Scaphopoda hydrostatic skeleton A body support that results from fluids under pressure in an animal’s body cavity.
Scaphopoda inhalant opening The opening of a bivalve’s or tunicate’s siphon through which water is drawn into the body.
Scaphopoda irregular echinoid An echinoid such as a heart urchin or sand dollar that is adapted to a burrowing lifestyle.
Scaphopoda krill Pelagic, shrimplike creatures that belong to the arthropod order Euphausiacea.
Scaphopoda lancelet An animal belonging to the subphylum Cephalochordata. Also known as acephalochordate.
Scaphopoda larvacean A free-swimming tunicate that resembles a tadpole.
Scaphopoda madreporite The structure at which water enters the water vascular system of an echinoderm.
Scaphopoda mandible One component of the third pair of chewing or grinding appendages of crustaceans.
Scaphopoda mandibulate A member of the arthropod subphylum Mandibulata, which includes the crustaceans.
Scaphopoda mantle (mollusc) The part of a mollusc’s body that secretes its shell.
Scaphopoda mantle cavity The space between a mollusc’s mantle and its body
Scaphopoda melanin A brown or brown-black pigment found in many animals.
Scaphopoda mollusc A soft-bodied animal that is a member of the phylum Mollusca. The bodies of most molluscs are covered by a shell.
Scaphopoda molting In arthropods, the process by which an old exoskeleton is shed and a new one is formed.
Scaphopoda mother-of-pearl layer Another term for the nacreous layer of pearl oysters.
Scaphopoda nacreous layer The innermost layer of a molluscan shell. In oysters, it also is known as themother-of-pearl layer.
Scaphopoda nauplius larva A larval stage in the life cycle of many crustaceans Nauplius larvae are characterized by three pairs of appendages and a median eye.
Scaphopoda nautiloid A cephalopod that has an external shell belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea.
Scaphopoda nematode A round, wormlike animal that belongs to the phylum Nematoda.
Scaphopoda nonselective deposit feeder An animal that ingests both organic and mineral particles and then digests the organic material, especially the bacteria that grow on the surface of the mineral particles.
Scaphopoda notochord A flexible supporting structure that runs the length of the body between the gut and the nerve cord. It is present in all chordates at some stage in their development.
Scaphopoda nudibranch A gastropod mollusc that does not have a shell and has many projections from its body calledcerata.
Scaphopoda operculum A hard or tough covering found in some molluscan gastropods that closes the opening to the shell when the animal retracts inside. In fishes, the protective covering of the animal’s gills.
Scaphopoda ophiuroid Echinoderm commonly referred to as brittle star or serpent star, belonging to the class Ophiuroidea.
Scaphopoda oral tentacles Modified tube feet that are located around the mouth of a sea cucumber and used in acquiring food.
Scaphopoda ossicles Plates of calcium carbonate that make up the endoskeleton of echinoderms.
Scaphopoda oviduct A tube that carries eggs to the outside of a female’s body.
Scaphopoda palp (bivalve) A pair of structures located near the mouth that forms filtered food into a mass and then moves it to the bivalve’s mouth.
Scaphopoda palp (sea spider) A pair of sensory structures.
Scaphopoda pedicellariae Tiny pincerlike structures, found in some echinoderms, that keep the surface of the body clean and free of parasites and the settling larvae of fouling species. In some echinoderm species, they may also aid in obtaining food.
Scaphopoda pen An internal strip of hard protein that helps support the mantle of a squid.
Scaphopoda periostracum The outermost layer of a molluscan shell. The periostracum is composed of the proteinconchiolin.
Scaphopoda pharyngeal gill slits Perforated, slitlike openings that lead from the pharyngeal cavity to the outside. They are present in all chordates at some stage in their development.
Scaphopoda pheromone A hormone released into the environment by one individual that controls the behavior or development of other individuals of the same species.
Scaphopoda photophore A specialized organ in some organisms that produces bioluminescence.
Scaphopoda podia The tube feet of sea stars.
Scaphopoda pogonophoran An animal that belongs to the class Pogonophora of the phylum Annelida. Also known asbeardworms.
Scaphopoda polychaete A type of annelid worm belonging to the class Polychaeta.
Scaphopoda postanal tail A tail that extends beyond an animal’s digestive tract. It is present in all chordates at some stage in their development.
Scaphopoda priapulid A benthic worm belonging to the phylum Priapulida.
Scaphopoda prismatic layer The middle layer of a molluscan shell and the layer that contains most of the mass of the shell.
Scaphopoda radula A ribbon of tissue that contains teeth. This structure is unique to molluscs.
Scaphopoda regular echinoid An echinoid with a spherical body. Also known as asea urchin.
Scaphopoda respiratory tree A system of tubules found in most sea cucumbers that functions in gas exchange.
Scaphopoda roe An ovary with eggs.
Scaphopoda salp A free-swimming tunicate belonging to the class Thaliacea.
Scaphopoda scaphopod A mollusc belonging to the class Scaphopoda. Scaphopods are also known astusk shellsbecause their shells are shaped like the tusks of elephants.
Scaphopoda sedentary polychaete A sessile polychaete that usually forms some sort of tube to cover its body.
Scaphopoda selective deposit feeder An animal that separates organic material from minerals in sediments and ingests only the organic material.
Scaphopoda sepia A dark fluid produced in the ink glands of cephalopods.
Scaphopoda septa A divider or partition.
Scaphopoda setae Bristles on the bodies of annelid worms.
Scaphopoda shipworm A bivalve mollusc with a wormlike body belonging to the genusTeredoorBankiathat can burrow into wood.
Scaphopoda siphon Tubular structure in some invertebrates that directs the flow of water in and out of the animal’s body.
Scaphopoda siphuncle A cord of tissue that runs through the chambers of a nautilus shell and functions in the removal of seawater from the chambers and in the regulation of the gas content of the chambers.
Scaphopoda sipunculid Solitary worms belonging to the phylum Sipuncula.
Scaphopoda spermatophore A package of sperm.
Scaphopoda spoonworm An animal that belongs to the class Echiura in the phylum Annelida. Also known as anechiuran.
Scaphopoda swarm A large mass of krill.
Scaphopoda swarming A behavior exhibited by some errant polychaetes in which the males and females congregate at the surface of the water to reproduce.
Scaphopoda swimmeret An appendage modified for swimming in some crustaceans.
Scaphopoda telson A long spike attached to the posterior end of a horseshoe crab’s abdomen; used for steering and defense.
Scaphopoda trochophore larva A free-swimming ciliated larva in the life cycles of many marine molluscs as well as some other marine organisms.
Scaphopoda tube feet Tubular structures in echinoderms that function in locomotion and feeding.
Scaphopoda tunic The body covering of animals known as tunicates, phylum Urochordata, which is composed of a molecule similar to cellulose.
Scaphopoda tunicate Animals belonging to the subphylum Urochordata. Tunicates are named for their body covering: a tunic composed of a substance similar to cellulose.
Scaphopoda umbo The area around the hinge of a bivalve’s shell. This area represents the oldest part of the shell.
Scaphopoda univalve A shell composed of one piece.
Scaphopoda veliger larva A free-swimming larval stage that develops from the trochophore larva of some molluscs.
Scaphopoda visceral mass The dorsal region of the gastropod body that contains the circulatory, digestive, respiratory, excretory, and reproductive systems.
Scaphopoda water vascular system A hydraulic system unique to echinoderms that functions in locomotion, feeding, gas exchange, and excretion.
Scaphopoda whorls The turns of a gastropod’s spiral shell.
Scaphopoda zoea larva The planktonic larval stage of decapod crustaceans.
Sea Anemone Acontia Thin white or colored threads attached at one end to the borders of the mesenteries, as a rule below the filaments, while the other end is free. They are laden with extraordinarily numerous nematocysts of various categories. They can be protruded through the mouth, and in some cases through special pores (cinclides) in the body-wall, for purposes of defense or paralyses of prey. In histological structure they differ completely from the mesenterial filaments.
Sea Anemone Acontioids Thick threads attached to mesenteries below the filaments. With few nematocysts belonging to some of the same categories as those in the filaments.
Sea Anemone Acrorhagi Marginal outgrowths of the body-wall found in some genera of Actiniaria, containing a strong concentration of nematocysts. They may be simple and spherical, slightly branched, or even frondose.
Sea Anemone Acrospheres The globular ends of certain tentacles, laden with numerous nematocysts. They are of different categories in the Corallimorpharia and in the Actiniaria and seemingly in Madreporaria also.
Sea Anemone Actinopharynx Throat, stomodaeum (or gullet, aesophagus, or pharynx); the tube which leads from the mouth in to the coelenteron.
Sea Anemone Actinostome The mouth, or upper aperture of the actinopharynx, in the center of the oral disk.
Sea Anemone Alveolar In cross section the mesogloeal sphincters of many anemones are composed of numerous small more of less circular groups of muscle fibers, these small circles having the appearance of alveoli. In a sphincter in which the "alveoli" are fairly scattered, the structure may be termed "alveolar". When the "alveoli" are so close together that the strands of mesogloea between them are very reduced, and form a network, the structure may be termed "reticular".
Sea Anemone Cinclides Small apertures (or organized soft spots which will rupture readily) in the column through which the acontia, if present, may protrude.
Sea Anemone Coelenteron The general cavity of the body of an anemone where digestion, nutrient absorption, and gas exchange take place.
Sea Anemone Column Body-wall.
Sea Anemone Conchula A more or less lobed projection from the upper end of a siphonoglyph.
Sea Anemone Couple The 12 oldest mesenteries originate in a different way from those which follow in that they arise bilaterally on opposite sides of the directive axis. Each such "pair" has been called a "couple". The directives, which normally belong to the 12 primary mesenteries, are couples as well as pairs.
Sea Anemone Diploblastic Having a body made of two cellular layers only (as opposed to the majority of animals which are triploblastic), the exterior ectoderm and the interior endoderm. These two layers are separated by the largely non-cellular jelly-like mesogloea.
Sea Anemone Ecto-mesogloeal muscles Muscles which in the main are embedded in the mesogloea.
Sea Anemone Endocoel The space between two mesenteries belonging to one and the same pair.
Sea Anemone Endocoelic tentacles Tentacles the cavities of which communicate with endocoels.
Sea Anemone Endo-mesogloeal muscles Muscles which in the main are embedded in the mesogloea.
Sea Anemone Enterostome The lower or internal orifice of the actinopharynx, by which the cavity of the latter is put into communication with the coelenteron.
Sea Anemone Exocoel The space between mesenteries belonging to different pairs.
Sea Anemone Exocoelic tentacles Tentacles the cavities of which communicate with exocoels.
Sea Anemone Filament A thickened rim running along the free border of a mesentery from the end of the actinopharynx (in the case of "perfect mesenteries") downwards. In its lower part the filament is simple, in its upper part it may be a triple cord. The lateral bands have been called ciliated tracts (streaks), the median band the cnidoglandular tract (streak) and this may be very convoluted below the ciliated tracts. In the Corallimorpharia and Protantheae the filament is always simple, in the Ptychodactiaria the simple filament is continued distally into a half-funnel formation.
Sea Anemone Fosse A circular groove enclosed by a distinct fold, the parapet or collar, of the column, a little below the tentacles.
Sea Anemone Imperfect mesenteries Mesenteries not reaching the actinopharynx.
Sea Anemone Limbus The border along which the column joins the pedal disk.Margin
Sea Anemone Marginal spherules Vesicles situated on the parapet or in the fosse, which may have apertures, and are provided with atrichs, basitrichs and spirocysts.
Sea Anemone Marginal stomata Large or small apertures in large mesenteries (one aperture per mesentery), near the margin of the body, by means of which water may pass through the mesenteries.
Sea Anemone Marginal pseudospherules Vesicles situated at the margin, which may possess an aperture, and containing basitrichs only.
Sea Anemone Mesenteries Infoldings of the endoderm and mesoglea extending from the body-wall into the gastrovascular cavity, some of which reach the actinopharynx and divide the gastrovascular cavity. The mesenteries serve to increase the surface area for digestion and uptake of nutrients.
Sea Anemone Mesenterial arrangement The mesenteries are arranged in pairs, each consisting of two mesenteries adjacent to one another. One can distinguishes between directive pairs and ordinary pairs. Directives, which are situated in the directive axis, have their longitudinal muscles (retractors) on their outer sides turned towards the exocoels.
Sea Anemone Mesenterial muscles One side of each mesentery is occupied by longitudinal muscles, the other by transverse and parietobasilar muscles; the latter generally run obliquely from the column to the pedal disc. In most of the Actiniaria there are also basilar muscles running along both sides of the base of the mesentery, close to the pedal disc.
Sea Anemone Meso-ectodermal muscles Muscles which in the main are ectodermal, but small parts of which are embedded in the mesogloea.
Sea Anemone Mesogloeal muscles Muscles wholly embedded in the mesogloea.
Sea Anemone Meso-endodermal muscles Muscles which in the main are endodermal, but a small part of which is embedded in the mesogloea.
Sea Anemone Metacnemes The mesenteries arising as pairs after the formation of the 12 first mesenteries.
Sea Anemone Nematoblasts Special cells in which nematocysts are housed.
Sea Anemone Nematocysts Stinging capsules the thread of which shows several types of structure. The following categories of nematocysts are present in the Anthozoa: atrichs: thread without barbs, smooth; holotrichs: thread without a differentiated basal shaft but with barbs along its whole length; basitrichs: thread without shaft but with barbs at its base only; microbasic b-mastigophors: thread with a shaft, but the demarcation between the shaft and the thread not strongly marked, shaft with barbs; in unexploded capsules the shaft does not show any funnel-shaped formation.
Sea Anemone Nematosomes Globular strongly ciliated, free swimming bodies with numerous nematocysts occurring in the coelenteric cavity of Nematostella. Their true nature is unknown.
Sea Anemone Nematospheres Globular tentacles with numerous basitrichs.
Sea Anemone Nemathybomes Spheroid invaginations of the columnar ectoderm into the mesogloea laden with numerous nematocysts. They occur in Edwardsia and Isoedwardsia.
Sea Anemone Orientation of the body A typical animal belonging to the groups handled here can be divided into two equivalent halves by a line passing through the endocoels between the directive mesenteries. This line is the directive axis. In order to describe the position of the 8 primary mesenteries one uses the arbitrary terms dorsal and ventral for the two directive couples and dorso-lateral and ventro-lateral for the lateral ones. The ventral directive couple is the one towards which theretractors on the four lateral mesenteries face.
Sea Anemone Perfect mesenteries Mesenteries attached to the actinopharynx.
Sea Anemone Physa The aboral ampullaccous end of certain Athenaria, appears rounded and swollen out into a bladder-like structure.
Sea Anemone Primary tentacles The six oldest tentacles.
Sea Anemone Primary mesenteries The six oldest pairs of mesenteries.
Sea Anemone Protocnemes The first 12 mesenteries which arise as couples.
Sea Anemone Scapus In some taxa the column is externally divisible into regions. The most proximal zone has been called a physa but this is an ampullaccous extremity present only in Athenaria. The principal and longest zone of the column or scapus may be provided with tenaculi or tubercles. Above the scapus, distally, there is either a thick-walled scapulus or a thin-walled capitulum. In certain cases both regions are present, the capitulum above the scapulus.
Sea Anemone Siphonoglyphs Anatomically differentiated smooth grooves running down the actinopharynx from the mouth to its inner end or beyond this. For the most part they are connected with directives but not in all cases. In some taxa the siphonoglyph forms a tube separated from the actinopharynx (in Peachia mira and Metapeachia).
Sea Anemone Sphincter The endodermal circular muscles of the column may be accumulated at or near the margin and form a sphincter which either is endodermal or embedded in the mesogloea, which is then called a mesogloeal sphincter. Rarely there is a transition between them, an endo-mesodermal or meso-endodermal sphincter. The endodermal sphincter shows a different appearance in cross section.
Sea Anemone Tenaculi More or less solid papillae situated on the column, the ectoderm of which is partly chitinised and provided with an usually strong, sometimes stratified cuticle, to which grains of sand or detritus may adhere.
Sea Anemone Vesicles Ampullaccous, non-adhesive evaginations of the column, simple or compound; with more or less numerous nematocysts of various categories.
Sea Anemone Verrucae More or less ampullaccous, adhesive evaginations of the column, simple or more rarely compound, with modified ectoderm, without nematocysts in their central part. Rarely, as in Sagartia, there is no evagination, but the ectoderm shows same structure as that of the verrucae proper and is adhesive (suckers).
Sea Snake Chin shield Shield on the central forward portion of the lower jaw
Sea Snake Fang Pointed elongated tooth
Sea Snake Frontal scale Scale present at the center of head between eyes
Sea Snake Infralabials Scales that border the mouth opening along the lower jaw
Sea Snake Maxillary bone The bone of the upper jaw which serves as a foundation of the face
Sea Snake Mental shield A shield at the center of lower jaw tip
Sea Snake Mental groove A longitudinal groove on underside of head between large, paired chin shields and smaller gular scales.
Sea Snake Nasal plate Plate in the head frontal region contains nasal opening
Sea Snake Notch An incision on an edge or surface
Sea Snake Palatine The palatine bones are paired bones of the skull that are situated at the back part of the nasal cavity between the maxillary bones
Sea Snake Parietal A bone forming the central side and upper back part of each side of the skull.
Sea Snake Postoculars Scales behind eye
Sea Snake Prefrontal Region in front of the frontal
Sea Snake Preocular Region in front of eye
Sea Snake Rostral Scales in the anterior most end of the body
Sea Snake Scale row Arrangement of scales along the entire body
Sea Snake Scales Small, thin horny or bony plates protecting the skin
Sea Snake Snout Region between eye and the tip of upper jaw
Sea Snake Supralabials Scales bordering the lateral sides of upper jaw
Sea Snake Supraocular Scale above the eye
Sea Snake Temporal Scales behind postocular
Sea Snake Venom A poisonous substance secreted by mouth and typically injected into prey or aggressors by biting or stinging
Sea Snake Ventrals Scales in the entire middle of lower side
Seafan Anthocodia (p. Anthocodiae) Distal part of a polyp including the mouth, neck and tentacles, which may or may not be retractable into coenenchyme.
Seafan Anthostele The lower part of the polyp consisting of the gastrodermal canal where it penetrates the coenenchyme; typically not visible on the surface of the colony.
Seafan Arborescent Tree like branching pattern, generally comprising a bare stalk and polyps arranged on the distal branches and twigs (e.g. Pseudodrifa nigra).
Seafan Armature The arrangement of the sclerites on the head of a polyp.
Seafan Autozooid A polyp containing eight tentacles and mesenteries; in dimorphic colonies, they are larger than siphonozooids.
Seafan Axis Inner supporting structure of some octocoral colonies; may or may not contain sclerites; may be horny and/or calcareous, hollow or solid.
Seafan Boundary canals In Scleraxonia, canals that run longitudinally throughout colony, separating medulla from cortex.
Seafan Calyx (p. Calyces, adj. Calicular) Stiff, projecting portion of the coenenchyme, typically reinforced by modified sclerites, into which the anthocodia may retract.
Seafan Capitate Unbranched colonies with a disk like, spherical or hemispherical terminus on a narrow stalk, commonly resembling a club or torch (e.g.Nidalia occidentalis).
Seafan Capstan An elongate sclerite with two girdles of warts or tubercles at each end (e.g.Leptogorgia hebes); often named by number of tubercles (e.g. Triradiate capstan).
Seafan Coenenchyme (adj. Coenenchymal) The common colony tissue between the polyps, consisting of mesoglea penetrated by solenia and gastrodermal canals and containing sclerites.
Seafan Collaret A ring of transversely arranged, bowed anthocodial sclerites located below the bases of the tentacles; typically associated with points, forming a ‘collaret and points’ arrangement.
Seafan Contractile Ability of an anthocodia to reduce in size without inversion into the upper part of the anthostele within the coenenchyme, often accomplished by folding the tentacles inward.
Seafan Cortex (adj. Cortical) In Scleraxonia, the layer of coenenchyme surrounding the medulla.
Seafan Dichotomous Branching pattern displaying a repeating bifurcation (e.g. Iciligorgia schrammi).
Seafan Digitiform Unbranched, finger like colony form (e.g. Bellonella rubistella)
Seafan Dimorphic Having two types of polyps, autozooids and siphonozooids (e.g. Pennatulacea).
Seafan Disk Spindle
Seafan spindle Shaped sclerite that displays the fusion of warts into girdles on one or both sides (e.g.Leptogorgia setacea).
Seafan Double cone A spindle like sclerite with a medial constriction and acute ends (e.g.Viminella barbadensis).
Seafan Double head A sclerite with a medial constriction and blunt ends (e.g. Viminella barbadensis).
Seafan Fistulose A state in which the end of a flattened branch is rolled inward, partially fusing and forming a terminal groove (e.g. Iciligorgia schrammi).
Seafan Foliated club Elongate sclerite with an enlarged end adorned with leaf like or spinous processes (e.g.Pseudodrifa nigra).
Seafan Foliose Resembling a leaf; dorsoventrally compressed and broad (e.g. Renilla reniformis).
Seafan Lobed Colonies with a few short, stout branches, often with clusters of polyps at tips (e.g.Pseudodrifa nigra)
Seafan Loculation (n. loculus, n. p. loculi ) The presence of spaces between layers of gorgonin in a holaxonian axis, which may be filled with calcified material, often very prominent in Plexauridae (loculi refers the pockets or empty spaces between the layers).
Seafan Medulla Inner supporting structure of a scleraxonian colony, comprised of sclerites often bound together with various amounts of horny gorgonin.
Seafan Monomorphic Having one type of polyp, autozooids.
Seafan Monopodial Branching in which a primary polyp gives rise to lateral daughter or budded polyps (e.g.Telesto sp., Carijoa riisei).
Seafan Oozooid Enlarged and modified polyp of the pennatulacean colony bearing autozooids and siphonozooids.
Seafan Peduncle Often called a stalk, the lower, bare portion of a pennatulacean colony that anchors in soft substrate.
Seafan Pinnate Branching in one plane that appears feather like (e.g.Muricea pendula).
Seafan Planar Branching colonies that grow in one plane; fan like.
Seafan Plate A broad, flat, irregularly shaped sclerite (e.g. Scleranthelia rugosa).
Seafan Platelet A small flattened sclerite of diverse outline (e.g. Sclerobelemnon theseus).
Seafan Points Sets of anthocodial sclerites, often bent spindles, forming eight longitudinal groups at the base of each tentacle; located above the collaret (if present), forming a ‘collaret and points’ arrangement.
Seafan Polyp leaves Flattened expansions bearing secondary polyps in some pennatulaceans, such as Virgulariidae.
Seafan Polyp mounds Raised regions of the coenenchyme into which polyps retract; not reinforced by modified or specialized sclerites.
Seafan Primary polyp Polyp (in Clavulariidae) giving rise to lateral or daughter polyps; often the polyp farthest from substrate.
Seafan Rachis Fleshy part of a tentacle from which pinnules arise; in Pennatulacea, the part of the oozooid that produces the other polyps.
Seafan Retractile Ability of an anthocodia to fully withdraw into the upper part of the anthostele within the coenenchyme.
Seafan Sclerite Microscopic, calcareous structures found in the coenenchyme, anthocodiae, and sometimes in the axes of octocorals.
Seafan Siphonozooid In dimorphic colonies, a polyp with reduced tentacles and mesenteries; smaller and less conspicuous than autozooids.
Seafan Spindle Common sclerite shape displaying an elongate form and tapering ends (e.g. Gorgoniidae).
Seafan Stellate plate Flat sclerite with peripheral lobes, appearing star like, sometimes with a protruding knob in the centre (e.g.Bebryce parastellata).
Seafan Stolon An extension of the coenenchyme that traverses the substrate and connects polyps or colonies, often broad and ribbon like.
Seagrass Bidentate Having two teeth or tooth like parts.
Seagrass Blade A blade is a narrow, flat leaf.
Seagrass Blunt Having a dull edge or end; not sharp.
Seagrass Branched root A secondary root or limb growing from the trunk or main root of a tree or shrub or from another secondary limb
Seagrass Broadly acute Sharply pointed; converging edges making an angle of less than 90°.
Seagrass Cross veins A transverse vein that connects adjacent longitudinal veins in the wing of an insect
Seagrass Flower The flower is the reproductive unit of angiosperms. Flowers usually have carpels, petals, sepals, and stamens.
Seagrass Fruit That structure which bears the seeds
Seagrass Lamina The lamina is the blade of a leaf
Seagrass Lanceolate Lanceolate leaves are shaped like a lance; they have a broad base and taper to a point
Seagrass Lateral teeth With minute teeth on margin of leaf.
Seagrass Leaf hairs Row of cells borne on the surface of an organ
Seagrass Leaf margin Lateral means of, near, or from the side of an organism.
Seagrass Leaf tip The edge, as in the edge of a leaf blade.
Seagrass Long Oval Shaped like a section through the long axis of an egg and attached by the wider end.
Seagrass Longitudinal veins A leaf with longitudinal striate venation has its veins arranged almost parallel to one another, running the length of the leaf
Seagrass Oval Planar, shaped like a flattened circle, symmetrical about both the long and the short axis; about twice as long as broad, tapering equally both to the tip and the base; oval.
Seagrass Ovate Broad and rounded at the base and tapering toward the end.
Seagrass Pointed Having an end coming to a point or sharp.
Seagrass Pollen Pollen is the male reproductive cell of flowering plants and cone bearing plants. Pollen grains are produced in the anther of a flower.
Seagrass Pollination Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma.
Seagrass Propagule A vegetative structure that can become detached from a plant and give rise to a new plant, e.g. a bud, sucker, or spore
Seagrass Rhizome A perennial underground stem usually growing horizontally.
Seagrass Root A unit of a plant's axial system which is usually underground, does not bear leaves, tends to grow downwards, and is typically derived from the radicle of the embryo.
Seagrass Rounded Shaped into the form of a circle or sphere; made round.
Seagrass Seed The seed is the reproductive unit of some plants
Seagrass Seedlings A young plant, especially one raised from seed and not from a cutting
Seagrass Serrulate Having a minutely serrate margin, as in a leaflet of the rose.
Seagrass Sheathed leaf base The leaf base when it forms a vertical coating surrounding the stem (a tubular or rolled part of an organ, e.g. the lower part of the leaf in most grasses.)
Seagrass Sickle Curved like shape
Seagrass Spathe A large sheathing bract enclosing the flower cluster of certain plants, especially the spadix of arums and palms
Seagrass Stigma The stigma is part of the pistil, the female reproductive tissue of a flower. The stigma receives the male pollen grains during fertilization
Seagrass Tubular The form of a tube or cylinder.
Seagrass Viviparous Germinating while still on the plant, as certain bulbs and transformations of floral tissues
Seaweed Antheridium a structure that produces motile male gametes (sperm).
Seaweed Bisexual having both sexes.
Seaweed Blade a flattened, leaf-like part of the thallus.
Seaweed Calcar spur subtending a cystocarp.
Seaweed Carpogonium the female sex structure in red algae.
Seaweed Carpospore a spore, usually diploid, produced in the carpogonium.In red algae, it grows into a free-living tetrasporophyte.
Seaweed Cerata dorsal appendages on some opisthobranchmollusks (sea slugs) that contain diverticula of the digestive gland.Serve as gills.
Seaweed Chloroplast a cell organelle specialized for photosynthesis, the production ofcarbohydrates from carbon dioxide, water in the presence of light energy.
Seaweed Coenocytic referring to a multinucleate cell, the coenocyte, derived when the nucleus divides but the cytoplasm does not.
Seaweed Conceptacle a fertile cavity, often with a pore.
Seaweed Cortex tissue external to the medulla, often an outer covering, of a blade.
Seaweed Cryptostomata minute cavities in the outer cortex of Fucales containing hairs.
Seaweed Cystocarp a structure in the female gametophyte of red algae consisting of diploid carposporophyte surrounded by gametophytic tissue.It may be a pigmented bump with or without an ostiole.
Seaweed Dichotomous branching in pairs.
Seaweed Dioecious bearing male and female reproductive structures on separate individuals.
Seaweed Diploid having a normal (double or 2n) set of chromosomes.
Seaweed Discoid disk shaped.Usually referring to the shape of holdfasts.
Seaweed Distichous arranged in two rows on opposite sides of an axis.
Seaweed Distromatic having two layers of cells.
Seaweed Gametangium (pl. gametangia) a structure that produces gametes.
Seaweed Euryhaline able to withstand a wide range of salinities.
Seaweed Eurythermal able to withstand a wide range of temperatures.
Seaweed Filamentous a row of cells arranged end to end forming a hair-like thallus.
Seaweed Gamete a sexual cell, male or female (e.g., sperm and eggs).
Seaweed Gametophyte the haploid and sexual phase in the life history of an alga; produces gametes.
Seaweed Haploid having a single set of chromosomes - half the normal number (1n).
Seaweed Herbivory feeding on plants.
Seaweed Holdfast the structure that attaches the alga to its substratum.
Seaweed Intercallary occurring anywhere along the thallus except at the apex.
Seaweed Intergeniculum (pl. intergenticula) acalcified segment between the uncalcified joints of coralline algae.
Seaweed Isomorphic having the same shape; looking alike.
Seaweed Lanceolate shaped like a lance; several times longer than wide.
Seaweed Laminarin a polysaccharide carbohydrate energy storage product in Laminaria.
Seaweed Meristem a region of rapidly dividing, undifferentiated cells; an area of growth.
Seaweed Midrib the middle rib of a blade.
Seaweed Monoecious bearing male and female reproductive structures on the same individual.
Seaweed Monostromatic having one layer of cells.
Seaweed Oogonium a female reproductive cell (gametangium) that produces one or more female gametes (eggs).
Seaweed Ostiole a pore.
Seaweed Ovate egg-shaped.
Seaweed Papilla (pl. papillae) small rounded or pimple-like projections on a surface
Seaweed Pericentral surrounding central axial cells.
Seaweed Pinnate having similar parts arrange on opposite sides of an axis, like a feather.
Seaweed Plastid a pigmented cell organelle (e.g., a chloroplast which contains chlorophyll).
Seaweed Pneumatocyst a gas bladder or float of brown algae.
Seaweed Receptacle the inflated tip of a branch that holds conceptacles (e.g. the swollen tip of Fucus).
Seaweed Rhizoid a unicellular or filamentous structure for attachment.
Seaweed Rhizome a horizontal, shoot-producing stem growing within the substrate.
Seaweed Saxicolus growing on rocks.
Seaweed Spermatangium (pl. spermatangia) a cell in red algae that produces a single, nonflagellated, male gamete (the spermatium).
Seaweed Spore a motile or nonmotile, asexual reproductive structure.
Seaweed Sporophyll the part of the alga, usually a blade, which bears sporangia, the structure that produces spores.
Seaweed Sporophyte the diploid phase in the life history of the alga; produces spores.
Seaweed Sorus (pl. sori) a cluster of reproductive structures.
Seaweed Stipe the stem-like part of the thallus between the holdfast and the blade(s).
Seaweed Stolon a runner growing out of the base of the alga capable of producing offshoots.
Seaweed Substratum the material (such as rock) on which the alga is growing (substrate).
Seaweed Tetraspore a spore, grouped in fours, produced by tetrasporophytes
Seaweed Tetrasporophyte a phase in the life history of red algae that produces tetraspores.
Seaweed Tertiary referring to a third stage.
Seaweed Thallus the body of the alga.
Seaweed Uniseriate having a single row of cells.
Seaweed Utricle the inflated part of Codium that contains plastids.
Seaweed Vegetative not associated with reproductive cells or sexual reproductive capacity.
Seaweed Zygote a fertilized egg cell.
Shrimp Basal margin The lower margin of a plate in barnacles.
Shrimp Basal plate The bottom plate and place of attachment for barnacles. May be calcareous or membranous.
Shrimp Beak The lower curved angle of the scutum in goose barnacles or the apex of the tergum with a curved beak-like point in other barnacles.
Shrimp Bicuspid Having two points.
Shrimp Capitulum The portion of the barnacle above the peduncle (shelled part) of a goose barnacle.
Shrimp Carapace The hard dorsal covering of the head and thorax of the body. Does not cover the abdomen.
Shrimp Carapace length The distance from the anterior most part of the head (usually the rostrum) to the posterior most part of the carapace (does not include the abdomen).
Shrimp Carapace width In crabs, the distance between the lateral spines (the posterior most spines) of the carapace. This measurement is usually used to describe crab size.
Shrimp Carina A raised ridge. In goose barnacles, an unpaired narrow plate adjacent to the paired scutum and tergum plates. One of the parietes in other barnacles.
Shrimp Carpus The 3rd segment from the distal end of a crab leg. In a clawed leg, it is the segment where the appendage flexes (i.e. the elbow).
Shrimp Cephalothorax The fused head and thorax of many crustaceans.
Shrimp Chela (pl. chelae) The last two segments of a leg that forms a pincer or claw. It includes the movable and immovable fingers and the palm, except in mantis shrimps (no movable finger).
Shrimp Chelate Possesses a chela (claw).
Shrimp Chelipeds The 1st pair of legs (anterior most) when they have claws.
Shrimp Cirrus (pl. cirri) Biramous appendages in barnacles used to filter the water for food.
Shrimp Claw appendage The entire appendage that possesses a claw, from the fingers to the point of attachment to the body.
Shrimp Concave Curving inward.
Shrimp Convex Curving outward.
Shrimp Crest of claws An elevated, irregularly toothed ridge
Shrimp Crustacean An invertebrate with a segmented body, a hard external shell (exoskeleton), paired and segmented appendages and have 2 pairs of antennae. Includes shrimp, crabs, lobsters, barnacles and mantis shrimps.
Shrimp Dactylus (dactyl) The segment of a crab leg that is most distal (farthest) from the body. In a clawed leg, it is the movable finger segment.
Shrimp Distal Farthest from the center of the body.
Shrimp Dorsal Pertaining to the top (back).
Shrimp Dorsolateral Upper part of sides.
Shrimp Endopod The inner pair of flattened appendages of the tail fan or at the end of a biramous segment.
Shrimp Exopod The outer pair of flattened appendages of the tail fan or at the end of a biramous segment.
Shrimp Eyescales Scale-like structure at the base of the eye stalk.
Shrimp Fingers The parts of the claw that opposes each other, one being movable, the other stationary.
Shrimp Hepatic spine Spine on the anterior lateral side of the carapace, behind and slightly below the eye orbit.
Shrimp Immovable finger The finger of the claw that does not move.
Shrimp Interorbital The edge of the carapace between the orbits (eye sockets)
Shrimp Keel A ridge.
Shrimp Lateral The sides of a body.
Shrimp Lateral spine The spines on the outside edges of the carapace at its widest point (usually the posterior most spines on the sides).
Shrimp Length of crab Usually refers to the carapace width. If a strong rostrum is present, length is sometimes reported as the carapace length.
Shrimp Length of shrimp The distance from the tip of the rostrum to the tip of the telson.
Shrimp Major cheliped The largest clawed appendage when the claws are unequal in size.
Shrimp Manus In a clawed leg, the manus makes up the immovable finger and palm. The propodus.
Shrimp Maxillipeds The three outer pairs of mouth appendages.
Shrimp Merus The 4th segment from the end of a leg appendage.
Shrimp Mottling Areas of color with no particular shape or pattern.
Shrimp Movable finger The finger of the claw that is movable.
Shrimp Nodules A small lump or knot.
Shrimp Oblique Angled, either upward or downward, usually refers to mouths, stripes or lines.
Shrimp Opercular plates The movable plates in the orifice of the shell in barnacles. Consists of the paired scuta and paired terga.
Shrimp Orbit The eye socket.
Shrimp Orbital teeth Projections or spines flanking each side of the eye socket.
Shrimp Orifice The dorsal opening of the shell in barnacles.
Shrimp Palm The part of the claw behind the movable and immovable fingers.
Shrimp Paries (pl. parietes) A triangular plate on a barnacle.
Shrimp Peduncle A fleshy stalk between the shell and substrate, in goose barnacles.
Shrimp Pereopods In shrimp, the 1st 5 pair of long walking legs, attached to the cephalothorax, the 1st few of which may or may not be chelate.
Shrimp Petasma Genital structures attached to the 1st pair of swimming legs in male penaeid shrimp. Looks like a pair of extensions, one from each leg with ends united together in larger shrimp.
Shrimp Pleopods In shrimp, the paired swimming legs that are attached to the abdomen, usually biramous.
Shrimp Posterior To the rear.
Shrimp Propodus The second segment from the distal end of a leg. In a clawed leg, the propodus is the segment with the immovable finger and palm.
Shrimp Proximal Nearest the center of the body or point of attachment to body.
Shrimp Radius (pl. radii) The walls in between the triangular plates in barnacles.
Shrimp Rostrum An extension of the carapace between the eyes projecting anteriorly.
Shrimp Scutum (pl. scuta) One of a pair of internal opercular plates in barnacles (in goose barnacles, the lower external triangular plate).
Shrimp Serrated Saw-toothed.
Shrimp Setae (plural of seta) Small hairs
Shrimp Spine A sharp pointed projection.
Shrimp Stomatopod A marine crustacean with strongly toothed, scissor-like claws and have gills on their abdomen. Also called mantis shrimps.
Shrimp Tail The abdomen, in shrimp.
Shrimp Tail fan Two pairs of flattened appendages that attach to the last segment of the abdomen. Teeth
Shrimp Telson The most terminal segment of the abdomen. Forms the center part of the tail fan.
Shrimp Tergum (pl. terga) One of a pair of internal opercular plates in barnacles (in goose barnacles, the upper external plate).
Shrimp Tergum spur A projection on the basal margin of the tergum in barnacles.
Shrimp Thelycum External pocket on the underside of the thorax of female penaeid shrimp, used for receiving the male sperm sac. Usually covered by 2 lateral plates (absent in white shrimp).
Shrimp Third maxillipeds The outermost part of the mouth appendages.
Shrimp Thoracic segment A segment between the carapace and the abdomen in mantis shrimp. The last pairs of walking legs are attached underneath.
Shrimp Thorax The part of the body between the head and abdomen.
Shrimp Tubercle A calcified and hard protuberance.
Shrimp Uropod Two pairs of flattened appendages that attach to the last segment of the abdomen.
Shrimp Ventral Pertaining to the underside or bottom.
Shrimp Walking legs Legs that are used for walking that do not possess a claw (except in shrimp, may be chelate.)
Turtle Abdominal scutes The pair of plastral scutes in nearly central position. They are in contact with the pectoral, femoral and inframarginal scutes.
Turtle Alveolar The ridges and inner grooves of the mandibles where the horny beak or tomium is implanted.
Turtle Anal scutes The rearmost pair of scutes of the plastron.
Turtle Angular bone Postventral element forming the lateral surface in each ramus of the lower mandible.
Turtle Arribazon (Arrival) Spanish word used to describe the simultaneous emergence of nesting females on a small stretch of sandy beach. It extends from several hours to several days. Also “Arribada” is used.
Turtle Axillary notch Frontal cavities on each side of the body between the carapace and plastron from which the fore flippers project.
Turtle Axillary scutes The variable number of scutes between the marginal, humeral and pectoral scutes, on the rear margin of the axillary notches.
Turtle Body pit A depression made by the female turtle on the sandy beach, during nesting. Shape and depth of the pit are generic characteristics.
Turtle Bridge bones Ventral parts of the shell that connects the peripheral bones of the carapace with the plastral bones. The contact area may be calcified or cartilaginous material.
Turtle Calipash Cartilaginous strips obtained from the edge of the carapace or extracted as jelly from the dried flippers. Generally of green colour when fresh.
Turtle Calipee Cartilage extracted from the border of the plastron, along the axillary and inguinal notches, the bridge and between the bones of the plastron. Calipee and calipash are used for the preparation of turtle soup.
Turtle Carapace length Distance either in straight line (SCL) or over the curve (CCL), between the anterior most edge to the rearmost edge of the carapace.
Turtle Carapace width Distance in straight line or over the curve across the widest part of the carapace, measured on its dorsal side.
Turtle Carapace Dorsal osseous shell of the turtle covered by horny scutes or soft skin.
Turtle Central scutes The middle scutes covering the neural plates of the carapace, in between the lateral scutes. Also named neural or vertebral scutes.
Turtle Cervical vertebrae Anterior bony elements of the vertebral column.
Turtle Choanae The internal openings of the nasal funnels through the vomerian bones on the palate.
Turtle Claw Sharp, horny nail on the anterior margin of the flippers. The claws (usually one or two on each flipper) are more strongly developed in males than in females and they are used to hold the female during copulation.
Turtle Clutch size Total number of eggs laid simultaneously to form a nest.
Turtle Coronoid bones Flat, paired, bony elements of the lower mandible.
Turtle Costal plates Expanded, ossified dermal plates fused to the axial skeleton (vertebrae and ribs), between the peripheral and neural plates of the carapace.
Turtle Crawl Symmetrical tract left by the fore and rear flippers of turtles on the sandy beach. Sizes and shapes of the crawl are considered characteristic for the species.
Turtle Cusp Sharp projection, usually on the tip of the jaws.
Turtle Dentary bone Largest element of the lower jaw, the principal support of the lower tomium.
Turtle Endemic Found only in a limited region.
Turtle Entoplastron plate Median bony plate lying between epiplastra and hyoplastra.
Turtle Epifauna Those animals living on the body of a turtle.
Turtle Epiplastron plate The foremost paired bony plates of the plastron.
Turtle Farming The culturing of sea turtles in tracts of sea water for commercial purposes. It must not rely on wild populations except initially or later occasionally, to avoid inbreeding problems and genetic degeneration.
Turtle Femoral scutes The pair of posterior plastral scutes in contact with the abdominal, inframarginal and anal scutes.
Turtle Flotilla Spanish name for a large number of migrant turtles drifting or swimming together in the open ocean.
Turtle Fontanelles Carapacial unossified areas between the peripheral and costal bones, usually disappearing with age.
Turtle Frontal bone The long bone above the orbit on each side of the skull.
Turtle Gular scutes The foremost paired scutes of the plastron.
Turtle Head length The distance between the tip of the beak and the posterior margin of the head.
Turtle Head width The distance across the widest part of the Head.
Turtle Head starting The practice of raising hatchling turtles in captivity for a few months to give them a better chance of survival when they are later released into the wild.
Turtle Humeral scutes The anterior paired scutes of the plastron, between the gular, pectoral and axillary scutes.
Turtle Hyoplastron plates The median front paired bony plates of the plastron.
Turtle Hypoplastron plates The median rear paired bony plates of the plastron.
Turtle Imprinting Theoretical procedure by which a sea turtle hatchling unconsciously “memorizes” environmental cues of its natal beach, that enables it to relocate the same beach when mature.
Turtle Incidental catch The unintentional catch of nontargetted species, such as turtles and bottom fishes during shrimp trawling.
Turtle Incubation period The time elapsed between egg laying and hatching. In sea turtles, it ranges from 45 to about 70 days, depending on species, temperature, humidity and latitude.
Turtle Indigenous An organism that originated and is living in a specified region.
Turtle Interanal scute The middle, rearmost plastron scute or scutes between the pair of anal scutes (sometimes absent).
Turtle Isotherm A theoretical warped plane or line in the water connecting points of equal temperature.
Turtle Jugal bone The long bone under the orbit, forming part of the cheek region on each side of the skull.
Turtle Kraal A pen used for holding turtles before slaughter; also an artificial beach for nesting purposes, an installation used to protect nests on a beach, or a fenced area against predation. Also called “corral”.
Turtle Lateral scutes The lateralmost scutes covering the carapace on both sides, between the central and marginal scutes. Also named pleural or costal scutes.
Turtle Lepidosis Configuration of the scales and scutes covering the body; of taxonomic value at genus level.
Turtle lmbricate Overlapping condition (like shingles on a roof) of the scutes of the carapace and plastron in the hawksbill sea turtle. Hatchlings and juveniles of other species commonly also have this condition.
Turtle lnframarginal scutes The scutes covering the bridge bones, between the ventral side of the marginal scutes and the central scutes of the plastron.
Turtle lnguinal notch The cavities on each side of the plastron from which the rear flippers project.
Turtle lntergular scute The middle, foremost plastron scute or scutes between the pair of gular scutes (sometimes absent).
Turtle Lost year The elapsed time between newborn hatchlings and growth to small plate size juveniles, during which the turtle is rarely encountered and its habits are largely unknown.
Turtle Marginal scutes The scutes covering the peripheral bones of the carapace, forming a hard edge all around it.
Turtle Maxilla The large bone extending up to the orbit and forming, with the premaxilla, the upper jaw margin.
Turtle Melanism The propensity of an organism to develop dark pigment throughout the skin.
Turtle Mentonian scute The scute under the tip of the lower Tomium.
Turtle Nares Pair of openings into the nose, the nostrils.
Turtle Nekton Free swimming organisms whose activity largely determines direction and speed of their movements, independent of water currents.
Turtle Neritic Relating to the waters over the continental shelves.
Turtle Nest The cavity where the eggs are laid by the turtles. Shape and depth differ by genus. It is also related to the clutch of eggs.
Turtle Neural plates Carapacial osseous plates fused to the vertebrae.
Turtle Niche The habits or role of an organism in a particular community. Mainly concerned with the food chain, competitors and enemies.
Turtle Nucal bones (or plates) The bones (usually two) are forming the foremost central part of the carapace.
Turtle Orbital length Longitudinal diameter of the eye socket.
Turtle Papillary projections Spine like growths presents in the throat of the sea turtles; they are more conspicuous in the leatherbacks.
Turtle Parietal bones The major elements of the skull roof between and behind the orbits.
Turtle Pectoral girdle Bones forming the support for the forelimbs or anterior flippers.
Turtle Pectoral scutes The median pair of scutes in contact with the humeral, inframarginal and abdominal scutes of the plastron.
Turtle Pelvic girdle Bones forming the support for the hindlimbs or posterior flippers.
Turtle Peripheral bones (or plates) Osseous elements forming the edge of the carapace.
Turtle Philopatry Tendency of sea turtles to nest in, or very near to, the previous nesting place, during the same or in successive breeding seasons. Also called “nesting site fixity or fidelity”.
Turtle Pigal bones (or plates) The rearmost marginal osseous plates that form the carapace.
Turtle Pigal scutes The rearmost pair of marginal scutes of the carapace. Also named postcentral, suprapigal, or supracaudal scutes.
Turtle Pivotal temperature Theoretical temperature at which incubation produces a sex ratio of 1:1.
Turtle Plastron Ventral osseous shell of the turtles, covered by horny scutes or soft skin.
Turtle Postcentral scutes The rearmost pair of marginal scutes of the carapace. Also named suprapigal, supracaudal or pigal scutes.
Turtle Postorbital bone The bone behind the orbit that forms part of each cheek of animal.
Turtle Postorbital scales The horny scales (usually 3 or 4) covering the sides of the head behind the orbits.
Turtle Precentral scute The foremost central scute of the carapace. Also named prevertebral, nucal or cervical scute.
Turtle Prefrontal bones A pair of circumorbital bones, extending anteriorly and also bordering the external nares.
Turtle Premaxilla bones The paired bones forming the front margin of the snout, supporting, together with the maxilla, the upper tomium.
Turtle Preorbital length The shortest distance between the anterior margin of the orbit and the tip of the snout. Also called preocular length.
Turtle Quadrate bone Thick bone close to the jaw articulation. Laterally, it is bound to the quadratojugal bone.
Turtle Ranching The raising of turtles from wild stock eggs or hatchlings to marketable size.
Turtle Remigrant Turtles that return to nest in a subsequent season.
Turtle Renesting Successive visits of a turtle to a nesting area, laying eggs each time.
Turtle Ribs Beneath the carapace of chelonians there are eight pairs of dorsal ribs fused to the costal or pleural and to the neural plates. The tips of the ribs are inserted in ventral pits of the peripheral bones.
Turtle Scales Thin, leathery or horny shields covering the head and flippers and forming callosities in some parts of the flippers.
Turtle Scutes Horny shields covering the carapace and plastron. The shape and size do not correspond with the underlying bony plates. The thickest and most valuable scutes are those of the hawksbill turtle.
Turtle Sexual dimorphism Morphological differences between males and females that appear at sexual maturity. Males develop stronger claws and thicker and longer tails. Females become heavier and have a deeper body shape.
Turtle Squamosal bones The principal component of the cheek region of the skull.
Turtle Supracaudal scutes The rearmost pair of marginal scutes of the carapace. Also named postcentral, pigal or suprapigal scutes.
Turtle Supraoccipital bones Paired bones of the upper part of the occiput at the back of the skull.
Turtle Suprapigal scutes The rearmost pair of marginal scutes of the carapace. Also named postcentral, pigal or supracaudal scutes.
Turtle Surangular bones The upper posterior bones of each ramus of the lower jaw.
Turtle Vomerine bone One of the pairs of osseous elements centrally placed behind the premaxillae and forming a bar between the internal nostrils or choanae.
Turtle Xiphiplastron bones The rearmost pair of bones forming the plastron.