||Abaxial means being located on the side
away from the axis. The abaxial surface of a leaf is its underside.
of physical environment.
to a protracted point.
||Terminating in a
distinct but not protracted point, the converging edges forming an angle of
less than 90 degrees.
abnormal positions of roots from the shoot system.
||Specialized roots in mangrove plants that are exposed to the
air, at least during low tide.
at different levels successively along a stem.
completes its life cycle from seed to seed in a single year (or season).
||The portion of a
stamen which bears the pollen.
||A short, sharp,
growing at or near the hilum of a seed; fleshy thickening of the seed coat
(e.g. in Myristicaceae).
||Member of the
orientation characterized by a persistent lack of sexual attraction to any
||The point of the
upper angle formed between the axis of a stem and a leaf (stalk).
||Arising from the
axil, as in an axillary bud at the end.
||The axillary spine
is a spine that develops in the axil (the angle between the stem and the
leaf) of a plant.
||The bark is the
outer covering of the trunk, branches, and roots of trees.
||Arising from the
base of a stem beneath a terminal flower.
||A fleshy fruit
developing from a single female reproductive organ may be applied to any
fruit which is fleshy or pulpy throughout, i.e. without a stony pit or core.
||Forked in two.
compound leaf, with leaflets on opposite sides.
saline/ salty but not having the salinity of seawater.
||A stout vertically
flattened root growing from near the base of the stem.
||A slender root
which spreads horizontally outwards from the plant.
||The calyx is the sepals of a flower.
layer of branches and leaves of a single tree or forest.
||A capsule is a
seed pod that opens when it is dry and the seeds are mature.
||A simple pistil or
single-celled ovary or seed vessel.
cluster, sometimes drooping.
opening along a circumference with the top coming off as a lid.
||Growing closely together in a compact cluster or group.
||Trunk of tree is
tall and straight.
||Many leaflets present on either side of the rachis
extensions from cable roots
||A cordate leaf has
a heart shape, with the wide part towards the petiole.
consists of the petals of a flower.
||Found all over the
||The seed-leaves or
||A flat topped
inflorescence in which the centre flower opens first.
leaves periodically (e.g. during dry season).
result from division of a growing point into two equal parts, giving repeated
cotyledons, i.e. primary leaves of the embryo; includes most seed plants.
||Male and female
flowers present in different plants.
||Crevice or hollow
in some plants, serving as lodging for insects (esp. ants) or mites.
||Notched at the tip
||Endemic plants are
native to an area and are only found in that area.
containing stored food, surrounding and nourishing the embryo.
||Of or relating to
the emergence of cotyledons above the surface of the ground.
||Growing on another
plant (usually an herb growing on a tree), without being rooted in soil.
||Of, relating to,
or found in an estuary.
||Not shedding its
||Bark that splits or cracks.
||Barks that falls
of in flakes or thin sheets.
||A projecting rim or edge.
towards the bottom.
||Like a leaf in
||Abnormal outgrowth from plant leaf (or stem) caused by the
presence of young insects (e.g. gall wasps).
||Germination is the
beginning of growth of a plant from its seed.
||An appendage or
other structure on a plant which secretes sticky or oily substances.
||Large numbers of
the same species occurring together at a single site (not necessarily
||Plant that only
occurs in salty, saline areas.
||A plant that partially parasites on a host, but
supplements this with its own (often feeble) photosynthesis; can exist
without a host.
||Scar left at
former point of attachment.
||A single type
specimen upon which the description and name of a new species is based.
produced as a result of cross between two different species.
||Portion of the
embryonic stem below the cotyledons (i.e. the primary leaves of the embryo).
cotyledons below the surface of the ground.
flowers or flower cluster.
||The part between
two nodes or joints.
||Above ground roots
shaped like a knee.
||Body of seawater
(often shallow) that is (almost) disconnected from the sea.
||A thick, milky juice.
||A division of a
compound (i.e. subdivided) leaf.
||A special pore in
the bark of trees and shrubs allows air pass in to inner tissues often with
characteristic shape, colour and size.
||A woody climbing
plant, usually of (semi) tropics.
||A tongue- shaped
or strap- shaped organ.
||The edge of a
||The central rib or
vein of a leaf.
cotyledon, i.e. primary leaf of the embryo; includes groups such as grasses,
sedges, orchids and lilies.
||Leaf apex usually
broad, terminated by a short stiff point called mucro.
simple vein or rib of a leaf.
||Knob or joint of a
stem at which leaves arise.
||Elongated, two or
four times longer than broad.
shaped and ends with the broader region.
||Blunt at the end,
forming greater than right angle.
||Two leaves borne
on either side of a branch at a single node.
||A plant whose leaf
is divided into several leaflets which arise from the same point.
divided into branches, compound.
||Occurring in all
of the tropical regions of the world.
||A leaf with the
stalk usually attached centrally beneath the leaf blade.
extension from cable roots.
||Plant which lives
for more than one year.
flowering and fruiting events.
||A projections on
the surface of the trunk.
||A compound leaf
with leaves arranged on opposite sides of an elongated axis.
||Plant a member of
the Nepenthaceae family, characteristically with leaf-ends that are modified
into vessels that contain rain water and enzymes and serve to trap ins
||A respiratory root
which rises above the soil surface or spongy/ corky aerial roots arising from
cable roots, variable in shape including peg, conical, pencil and knee.
||A dry fruit that
opens at maturity, e.g. of legumes (Legiminosae).
||Pollen is the male
reproductive cell of flowering plants and cone-bearing plants.
||Pollination is the
process in which the male's pollen fertilizes the female's ovule and creates
||Aerial roots that
form on the stem above ground, also called stilt roots.
||A structure, such
as seed or spore, which gives rise to a new plant.
covered with short, soft fine hairs.
elongated flower cluster with flowers maturing from the bottom towards top.
||A climbing palm.
||The ability of a
substance or object to spring back into shape.
||Like a net.
or to the lower side.
||Along the river or
||A bank generally
refers to the land alongside a body of water.
cluster of leaves as in a dandelion.
external structure, formed from the epidermis often visible only if viewed
use of tendrils, hooks, etc.
division of a leaflet (see above)
||Grass-like herb of
located directly under a flower they are the outermost part of a flower.
Collectively, the sepals are called the calyx.
is characteristic of having two different forms, one for the males and
another for the females of a species.
(partially) surrounds another organ (e.g. a leaf base).
||Smaller plants with main stems divided into many sub stems.
||Shaped like a sickle, a curved knife
piece, applied to leaves.
||Curving like a
sporangia on the surface of a fern leaf (plural = sori).
||Leaf shaped like a
elongated flower cluster with (sub-) sessile flowers, maturing from the
||A secondary spike.
or sac (of fern) (plural = sporangia).
of a fern.
||Bearing of small, hook-like appendage.
||The male organ of the flower consisting of the pollen- bearing
anther and its stalk.
||The upper and
usually largest petal of a Papillionaceae flower.
non-reproductive, not able to reproduce stigma.
||A root arising
from the stem some distance above the ground and affording.
plant’s stem or runner, capable of developing rootlets and stem, and
ultimately developing new individuals.
||Plant with juicy,
thick leaves and thickened stems; often occurs in dry and desert conditions
or physiologically dry conditions such as with high salinity.
||Line where two
parts are joined, and often split apart.
or resembling a swamp.
||A slender, twining
organ used to grasp support for climbing.
||Located at the
end, e.g. of a branch or twig.
||Occurring on land.
||A thick clump of
shrubs, often impenetrable.
||Having a number of
simple dichasial cymes arranged in a recemose manner on an elongated
plant, usually with one major trunk.
consisting of a number of flower stalks or pedicels.
||Grasses or sedges
growing closely together in a compact cushion.
state is the stage in a flowering plant's life cycle before the appearance of
its fruiting structures.
||A vascular bundle,
usually visible externally, e.g. on the leaf surface.
||Certain type of
evergreen, tropical forest that is particularly abundant in climbers (e.g. in
parts of Queensland, Australia).
||Sprouting on the
parent plant (e.g. many Rhizophoraceae).
||An area that is
either permanently, periodically or occasionally covered with fresh, brackish
or saline water.
arrangement of flowers from a common point or node.
arrangement of leaves from a common point or node.
||Thin, flat margin
bordering the fruit.
zones or regions of definite character.
||Having only one
plane of symmetry, usually the vertical plane, referring to a flower, calyx