||The physical factors that affect an
organism such as light, temperature, water and its dissolved and suspended
materials, and nutrients.
||The dominant genus of the family Acroporidae. The species
Acropora constitutes almost half of all the true corals and creates the major
deposits of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
||Corals that lack endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) and do not
contribute to reef-building.
||The order of soft corals. They are cnidarian and live in
shallow water. Most of the specimens are tropical and soft-bodied and found
in all areas.
||An order of cylindrical polyps found in all marine
environments. The largest distribution is in tropical waters where many
harbor symbiotic zoochlorellae or zooxanthellae algae, which can add colour
||Reproductive structures found in hydrozoan coral.
||The head or leading end of an animal. The term is also used to
denote position. Thus, the head of an arthropod is anterior to its thorax.
||A class of marine coelenterates (phylum Cnidaria), such as sea
anemones and corals. Anthozans are animals with radial symmetry. The dominant
form is the polyp, which can be large and quite complex. Most, but not all,
anthozoans are colonial.
||Coral that produces a hard proteinaceous skeleton; Black
||Radial corallites of Acropora with one side fused to the
||Coral with a tree-like growth form.
||A group of islands. An archipelago may consist of isolated
volcanic seamounts or mountain tops whose lower slopes and valleys have been
|Askeletal corals and larvae
||Corals and larvae that do not have skeletons.
||A ring of land surrounding a tropical lagoon, and which is in
turn surrounded by a coral reef. An atoll is frequently formed of basaltic
rock of volcanic origin and is capped with limestone covered with coral. The
islets that form atolls range in size from those less than a mile (1 km) in
diameter to those over 78 miles (120 km) in diameter.
||Referring to the corallite formed at the tip of a branch.
||Distinctive corallites at the apex of Acropora branches,
usually much larger than Radial corallites below.
||Cnidarians without symbiotic photosynthesizing algae. Species
described as azooxanthellae commonly feed on passing plankton and waterborne
||A partially submerged coral outcrop on the seaward side of a
lagoon. The barrier reef follows the contour of the land, of which it may be
an extension. Water in the lagoon is shallow, permitting coral growth, but
the descent is steep on the ocean side. Barrier reefs result from coral
growth or a change in the level of the seawater or subsidence of the beach
||Condition when colored zooxanthellae are expelled from a
living coral due to stress, resulting in a weakened specimen with its white
skeleton clearly visible through the animal's transparent tissue.
||Acropora growth form where branches are lined with many
elongate tubular corallites.
||Process of corallite reproduction by division to create
||Bushy growth form of Acropora with branches dividing with 3
||Portion of corallite defined by the outer wall, plural
||The upper surface of a corallite to which the soft parts of an
individual polyp are attached i.e. the upper, open end of the corallite.
||Massive corals that have corallites sharing common walls (e.g.
the upper surface of the corallum).
||A phylum whose members have tentacles, nematocysts, and radial
symmetry. They are, for the most part, marine
||An extension of the polyp that stretches over the surface of
||Thin horizontal skeletal plates between corallites.
|A group of marine animals belonging to the phylum cnidaria,
that exist as small sea anemone-like polyps, typically in colonies of many
identical individuals; or the skeletal remains of coral polyps.
||Aragonite (calcium carbonate) structure produced by corals and
found in shallow, tropical marine waters.
||Elongate wall or ridge formed between corallites or groups of
corallites. Columella a skeletal structure that develops in the central axis
of the calice. It is usually either styliform (rod-like), papillose,
trabecular (both spongy in appearance) or lamellar (formed from a series of
interconnecting vertical plates).
||Skeletal structure at center of corallite; none, porous, peg,
||Corals composed of many individuals a group of polyps formed
from a common parent by budding. There is no clear distinction (e.g. in
fungiids) between single individuals with many mouths and colonies of
individuals with single mouths.
||Coral composed of multiple corallites; compare to Solitary.
|Coral and coral reefs
||Cnidarians of the class Anthozoa; they are polyps,
predominantly with sixfold or eightfold symmetry, and are either solitary or
colonial. The coralline coelenterates construct calcium containing shells of
characteristic shapes. Colonies of coral and their associated foraminifera
and symbiotic algae live best in tropical and semitropical environments.
||The skeleton of an individual coral polyp / the skeletal parts
deposited by a single polyp.
||Acropora growth form where plates or clumps are composed of
interlocking horizontal branches with upturned tips.
||Growth form of short thick vertical branches that are
||Extension of the septa outside the corallite wall.
||Corallum formed from spreading branches of single corallites.
||Skeletal structures left by the polyps.
||A horizontal fold of the polyp wall that extends over the
||Relatively thin growth form which closely approximates the
||Species restricted to a specific area.
||Process of budding that grows outward from the parent
corallite's outer wall; compare to Intratentacular budding.
||Colony spreads out flat, plate-like or foliaceous.
||A term used to describe septa that protrude above the top of
the corallite wall.
||Colony in which the meanders arise from a common base but are
free laterally. They may be relatively short (crescentic) or elongate and
||Corals with polyp-containing valleys that are separated by
||The central depression in a calice, usually partly filled by
||Corals that are not attached to the substrate.
||A reef attached to
an island or a continent. The seaward side may be submerged and therefore a
|Great Barrier Reef
||A coral reef that lies east of Australia, stretching from the
Torres Strait south of New Guinea (Irian) to the Tropic of Capricorn. It is
more than 1,750 km (1,100 miles) long and the world’s largest reef.
||Corals that contain endosymboionts and contribute to the
building of reefs. Literally 'reef building' but commonly used as a
descriptor for marine invertebrates that have photosynthetic plants living
symbiotically within their tissues. Because the word is a misnomer, several
terms, including 'reef-building', 'symbiotic' and 'zooxanthellate', are used
synonymously. Of these, the former two are ambiguous and the latter is
restricted to extant corals and other taxa with zooxanthellae
||A class of cnidarians that characteristically exhibits
alternations of generations, often with a sessile polyp giving rise to a
pelagic medusoid form by asexual budding.
|Immersed / Inserted
||A term used to describe septa which do not protrude above the
top of the corallite wall.
||Corallites with opening embedded within coenosteum.
||Axial corallites in some species of Acropora that are smaller than average.
||Process of budding that occurs within the parent corallite's
outer wall; compare to Extratentacular budding.
||Referring to skeletal structures in corals (e.g., walls,
septa, coenosteum) that are solid rather than porous.
||One or more organisms used to assess the ecological health of
||A predator at the top of a food web, capable of consuming
organisms of more than one tropic level beneath it and strongly affecting the
||Thick colonies, often having a round, dome, or cube shape.
||Massive corals that have corallite mouths aligned in valleys
such that there are no individual polyps; i.e. in which the corallites are
fused in longitudinal series to produce a pattern of valleys and ridges.
||The mesenteriesare radial partitions lying within the
gastrovascular cavity of the coral polyp; mesenterial filaments may be
produced from their free inner margins; coiled tubular structures within the
polyp body cavity.
||Conical process arising from corallite walls that include
ribs, also known as Hydnophore.
||Triangular radial corallites of Acropora resembling an
||Upper surface of the polyp, extending from the mouth to the
outer ring of tentacles.
||Vertical rods (pali) or plates (paliform lobes) arising from
inner end of septal plates.
||Warts, rods, or lumps on coenosteum which are no larger than a
||An organism that feeds on the tissues of another organism.
Parasites are one of the major causes of disease in aquarium fishes.
||Primary septa with a petal-like appearance surrounded by
smaller septa; Family Siderastreidae.
||A vertical lobe-like protrusion formed at the inner end of a
septum, adjacent to the columella.
||Referring to skeletal structures in corals (e.g., walls,
septa, coenosteum) that are porous rather than solid.
||Area within the inner ring of tentacles and immediately
surrounding the mouth.
||The surface of the coenosteum between the corallites.
||Corals that have corallites adjoined only towards their base;
i.e. in which tall, separate corallites arise from the basal part of the
that have corallites with separate walls (c.f. cerioid corals) i.e. in which
corallites are separate and well defined.
||Free-swimming coral larvae.
||Colony with elevated corallites that do not share walls.
||Typically sedentary soft-bodied component of Cnidaria (corals,
sea pens etc), which comprises a trunk that is fixed at the base; the mouth
is placed at the opposite end of the trunk, and is surrounded by tentacles.
||Branching coral that grows horizontally just above the
||Smaller corallites that occur on side of Acropora branches;
compare to Axial corallites.
||Long radial corallites in Acropora with curved, knife or
||Colonies that develop within the tissue of parent colonies and
which have their own unattached skeletons. Best seen in Goniopora stokesi.
||Corals which have a hard limestone skeleton and belong to the
||Short radial corallites in Acropora with curved, fish-scale
||Radiating skeletal plates or ribs within a corallite's walls,
may be in several cycles by size.
||Radiating skeletal plates or ribs that are continuous,
extending outside the corallite walls onto the coenosteum and usually shared
with adjacent corallites; Family Agariciidae, Siderastreidae.
||Relating to the formation and arrangement of the septa. Septa
are laid down in radial series or cycles, the first cycle consisting of six
primary septa, the second of six secondary septa, the third of 12 tertiary
septa, and so on, Septal margin the upper free edge of the septum
||Relating to the size of septa. Equal sized septa form a single
order; subequal or unequal septa form two or more orders. Orders do not
necessarily correspond to cycles
||Extensions of the septa that unite adjacent calice centers.
They are found in corals where the corallites lack walls and there is no
clear distinction between septa and costae.
||The calcareous, plate-like structures that radiate from the
wall toward the center of the corallite. They are aligned vertically and
alternate with the mesenteries.
||Referring to corals that grow as a single polyp with a
||Small bars that make lateral links between adjacent
||A corallum in which corallite walls are indistinct and the
septa run uninterrupted between calice centers.
||Colony top shaped.
||Colonys haped like an inverted cone.
||A name proposed in a language used for general purposes as
opposed to a name proposed only for zoological nomenclature. In the Catalog
one finds the expression, "Not available, appeared as a French
||Colonial polyps that resemble sea anemones. They are
anthozoans of the phylum Cnidaria and are related to the corals. They inhabit
sandy bottoms in tropical to temperate water, an ecological niche similar to
that of the sponges.
||A group of symbiotic dinoflagellates living endosymbiotically
in association with one of a variety of invertebrate groups (e.g., corals).
In corals, they provide carbohydrates through photosynthesis, which are used
as one source of energy for the coral polyps. They also provide coloration
for the corals.