||A pair of fleshy papillae that arise
at the sides of the anus.
||Toward the head end or toward the arm tips of cephalopods.
||Comparative length of the arms expressed numerically in
decreasing order, e.g., 22.214.171.124 or 126.96.36.199.
||Refers to the presence and arrangement of suckers and/or hooks
on the arms and tentacular clubs of cephalopods.
||The chitonous like structure at the mouth of a cephalopod. The
beak is similar in structure to a parrot's beak and can give a nasty bite.
|Bifurcated arm tip
||The division of the arm tip into 2 branches.
||The study of the chemistry of living organisms
||Pertaining to the arms.
||Pertaining to the gills or gill region.
||Small, subtriangular flap at tip of muscular band that
supports the buccal membrane; may bear suckers.
||Thin web of tissue that encircles the mouth, reinforced by 6
to 8 buccal supports.
|Buccal membrane connectives
||Muscular bands that connect the supports of the buccal
membrane to the bases of the arms.
||Small suckers on the buccal lappets/membrane.
||Chalky, calcareous by deposition of calcium salts (calcium
||The conical papilla or projection on the hectocotylus of
octopods at the proximal terminus of the sperm groove, distal to the last
||A usually distinct group of suckers and knobs on the carpus of
the tentacular club.
||Small, rounded, hemispherical protuberances on the carpus to
which carpal suckers from the opposite club adhere during the locking of the
||Small suckers on the carpus of the club that usually adhere to
knobs on the opposite carpus during the locking of the clubs.
||The proximal zone of (small) suckers (and knobs) on the
||Cartilage like structures in the skin of certain squids; may
be overlapping and scale like, or mutlifaceted knobs or papillae.
||A class of Molluscs that are known for the reduction,
internalization or loss of their shell (exception: Nautilus), active life
styles and advanced behavior. Cephalopods are jet powered, many can produce
ink and they can rapidly change color, shape and texture.
||A horny polysaccharide substance (fingernail like) that forms
the sucker rings, hooks and beaks.
||Pigment filled muscular sacs in the skin under individual
nervous control that collectively provide the background colour, colour
patterns, and colour play of cephalopods.
||The eight arms (squids, cuttlefishes and octopuses) and two
tentacles (squids and cuttlefishes) or the very numerous arms (Nautilus) that
arise from the h ead and encircle the mouth of cephalopods.
||Arm: elongate, fleshy, finger like papillae along the lateral
edges of the oral surface of the arms, especially in cirrate octopods. Body:
fleshy protuberances of the skin that can be erected as papillae, usually
over the eyes.
||Any of the taxonomic groups into which a phylum is divided and
which consists of one or more orders.
||The spoon like or cup like conical posterior terminus of the
gladius or cuttlebone; homologous to the phragmacone of fossil teuthoids.
||The very thin, transparent skin that covers the eyes of
myopsid and sepioid cephalopods.
||The calcareous (chalky) oblong, supporting plate in the dorsal
part of the mantle of cuttlefishes.
||The distal, terminal section of the tentacular club, often
characterized by suckers of reduced size.
||Away from the body or point of origin; toward the peripheral
parts (opposite of proximal).
||The uppermost or back surface of a cephalopod, opposite the
ventral surface where the funnel is located.
||A protein made within a living organism which accelerates
specific chemical reactions (a catalyst).
||The outer layer of cells.
||Any of the taxonomic groups into which an order is divided and
which consists of one or more genera.
||A list server for people interested in cephalopods. Most
members are scientists and traffic is very low.
||The angle between the longitudinal axis of the mantle and the
posterior border of one fin.
||The portion of each fin that protrudes anteriorly from the
anterior point of attachment of the fin to the mantle.
||The pair of muscular flaps that arise along the dorsolateral
surface of the mantle of sepioids, teuthoids, and cirrate octopods; used for
locomotion, steering and stabilization.
||The mechanism of suckers and knobs on the carpal region of the
tentacular club that permits the two clubs to be locked together during
capture of prey
||Transverse, membranous fold of skin that forms a pocket in the
funnel groove of some oegopsids
|Funnel / Siphon
||The ventral, subconical tube through which water is expelled
from the mantle cavity during locomotion and respiration (reproductive and
waste products and the ink also pass through the funnel). Archaic term
||The depression in the posteroventral surface of the head in
which lies the anterior portion of the funnel.
|Funnel locking Cartilage
||The cartilaginous groove, pit, pocket, on depression on each
ventrolateral side of the posterior part of the funnel that joins with the
mantle component to lock the funnel and mantle together during locomotion, so
water is expelled only through the funnel and not around the mantle opening
(see Mantle locking cartilage).
||The glandular structure fused to the internal surface of the
funnel, generally a single W shaped form in octopods and a dorsal inverted V
shaped component with opposed ventral oblong components in decapods.
||The semilunar muscular flap in the dorsal surface of the
distal opening of the funnel.
||Knot like masses of the cell bodies of neurons located outside
of the central nervous system (CNS); includes the swellings of the CNS in
||The leaf like convoluted individual components of the gill
through which gas exchange occurs.
||Structures used by cephalopods and many other marine animals
like fish for respiration.
||The feather or rod shaped chitinous supporting structure in
the dorsal midline of teuthoids and non sepiid sepioids; the homolog of the
shell of ancestral forms.
||One (or more) arm(s) of male cephalopods modified for
transferring spermatophores to the female; modifications may involve suckers,
sucker stalks, protective membranes, trabeculae
||Chitinous, claw like structures ontogenetically derived from
the suckers on the arms and/or clubs of some oegopsids.
||The structure that manufactures and stores the ink of
cephalopods; it lies along the intestine and empties via a duct into the
||Shimmering and changing colours.
||A flattened, muscular extension along the aboral surface of
some arms to render them more hydrodynamic; (2) 1 or 2 expanded muscular
membranes on the tentacular
||A simple or complex structure that produces bioluminescence by
intrinsic (self generated) or extrinsic (bacterial) means (also termed
||The spatulate to spoon shaped, terminal structure of the
hectocotylus of octopods, that contains the calimus basally (proximally) and
usually a series of transverse ridges and grooves on the oral surface
||The fleshy (muscular) tubular or sac Iike body of cephalopods;
provides propulsion through jet Iike expulsion of water; contains the
|Mantle locking cartilage
||The cartilaginous ridge, knob or swelling on each side of the
ventrolateral, internal surface of mantle that locks into the funnel
component of the apparatus during locomotion
||Central or "hand" portion of club between the
dactylus distally and the carpus proximally.
||Pertaining to a structure located towards, on, or along the
||The elongate, membraneous container at the terminus of the
male reproductive tract that stores completed spermatophores (=spermatophore
||A pigmented spot or patch usually consisting of a central
locus of concentrated chromatophores with one or more concentric rings of
chromatophores. Ocellae occur on some octopuses, and their normally vivid
pigmentation make them stand out against the background colouration.
||The region of animal gut which transports food from mouth or
||A bump Iike to finger like protuberance on the posterolateral
surface of each side of the head; of presumed olfactory function.
||Minute pore in the anterior part of the transparent tissue
that covers the eyes of sepioids and myopsids
||An anteriorly directed indentation in the eyelid of
||Short, tubular stalk that supports a sucker in sepioids and
||An organ of greater or lesser complexity that produces and
distributes bioluminescence, either intrinsically through biochemical
reaction or extrinsically through luminescent bacteria
|Ploidy (in ref to algae)
||Indicating a specific multiple of a single set of
||An open depression in the anteroventral surface of the head of
sepioids into which the feeding tentacles are retracted when not in use.
||Thin web like integument along the lateral angles of the oral
surface of the arms and clubs lateral to the suckers, supported by muscular
rods called trabeculae
||Toward the body or nearest or next to the point of origin or
attachment; (opposite of distal).
||The thickened central axis that usually extends the entire
length of the gladius. Free rachis is the portion that does not support
||The chitinous, ribbon like band in the mouth of cephalopods
containing several transverse rows of teeth.
||Pertaining to the light sensitive membrane lining the
posterior wall of the eyeball.
||The calcareous dorsal supporting structure in the mantle of
||Small membranous folds of the integument that form pockets
lateral to the foveola
||A bulbous structure in the buccal region of some female
cephalopods, e.g., loliginids, for the retention of viable sperm until they
are required for fertilization. A tubular structure manufactured by male
cephalopods for packaging sperm; capable of holding millions of sperm, being
transferred intact, and attaching to the female until fertilization begins.
||A fleshy patch of
tissue, usually in the mantle cavity of some female cephalopods (e.g.
loliginids), to which spermatophores adhere after mating until fertilization
||The sharp spike Iike extension on the posterior tip of the
gladius or cuttlebone
||The 'ear bone' of cephalopods. Statocysts of some species can
be used to age them.
||Chitinous, often serrated or denticulate ring that encircles
the opening of suckers of squids and cuttlefishes.
||Muscular, suction cup structures on the arms and tentacles
(rarely on the buccal membrane) of cephalopods; some are stalked, placed on
muscular rods that contract (squids and cuttlefishes); some are sessile,
embedded without stalks on the oral surface of the arms (octopuses). They are
usually counted either in longitudinal or in transverse (oblique) rows.
||The posterior extension of the mantle, frequently elongate.
Fins or tapered terminations of fins may extend posteriorly along the tail.
||Elongate, stalked circumoral appendages of cuttlefishes and
squids used for prey capture; distal ends contain clubs with suckers (or
hooks); stalks usually devoid of suckers. Tentacles can retract into pockets
on the head of cuttlefishes, or merely contract, in squids.
||Terminal portion of a tentacle; armed with suckers (or suckers
and/or hooks), used for capturing prey
||Muscular rods that support the protective membranes on the
arms and clubs of cephalopods; occasionally membranes are reduced and/or
trabeculae are elongated, so they extend beyond the edge of the membrane,
||The central core of the chambered Nautilus shell, representing
the juvenile shell with its initial coils.
||Thin lateral expansion of the gladius that arises from the
||The lowermost or belly surface of a cephalopod; the surface on
which the funnel is located; opposite the dorsal surface.
||The 'guts' of an animal.
||Small orifaces at base of the web of some pelagic octopuses
||A membranous sheet of greater or lesser extent that extends
between the arms of many octopuses, giving an umbrella like appearance when
the arms are spread out, e.g., on cirroteuthids